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Detection of receptor-induced glycoprotein conformational changes on enveloped virions by using confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy.

Abstract
Conformational changes in the glycoproteins of enveloped viruses are critical for membrane fusion, which enables viral entry into cells and the pathological cell-cell fusion (syncytia) associated with some viral infections. However, technological capabilities for identifying viral glycoproteins and their conformational changes on actual enveloped virus surfaces are generally scarce, challenging, and time-consuming. Our model, Nipah virus (NiV), is a syncytium-forming biosafety level 4 pathogen with a high mortality rate (40 to 75%) in humans. Once the NiV attachment glycoprotein (G) (NiV-G) binds the cell receptor ephrinB2 or -B3, G triggers conformational changes in the fusion glycoprotein (F) that result in membrane fusion and viral entry. We demonstrate that confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy can, within minutes, simultaneously identify specific G and F glycoprotein signals and receptor-induced conformational changes in NiV-F on NiV virus-like particles (VLPs). First, we identified reproducible G- and F-specific Raman spectral features on NiV VLPs containing M (assembly matrix protein), G, and/or F or on NiV/vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyped virions via second-derivative transformations and principal component analysis (PCA). Statistical analyses validated our PCA models. Dynamic temperature-induced conformational changes in F and G or receptor-induced target membrane-dependent conformational changes in F were monitored in NiV pseudovirions in situ in real time by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. Advantageously, Raman spectroscopy can identify specific protein signals in relatively impure samples. Thus, this proof-of-principle technological development has implications for the rapid identification and biostability characterization of viruses in medical, veterinary, and food samples and for the analysis of virion glycoprotein conformational changes in situ during viral entry.
AuthorsXiaonan Lu, Qian Liu, Javier A Benavides-Montano, Anthony V Nicola, D Eric Aston, Barbara A Rasco, Hector C Aguilar
JournalJournal of virology (J Virol) Vol. 87 Issue 6 Pg. 3130-42 (Mar 2013) ISSN: 1098-5514 [Electronic] United States
PMID23283947 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Receptors, Virus
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
Topics
  • Humans
  • Nipah Virus (chemistry, physiology)
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Conformation
  • Receptors, Virus (metabolism)
  • Spectrum Analysis, Raman (methods)
  • Viral Envelope Proteins (chemistry, metabolism)
  • Virion (chemistry, physiology)
  • Virology (methods)
  • Virus Attachment

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