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Possible alterations in GABAA receptor signaling that underlie benzodiazepine-resistant seizures.

Abstract
Benzodiazepines have been used for decades as first-line treatment for status epilepticus (SE). For reasons that are not fully understood, the efficacy of benzodiazepines decreases with increasing duration of seizure activity. This often forces clinicians to resort to more drastic second- and third-line treatments that are not always successful. The antiseizure properties of benzodiazepines are mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A) ) receptors. Decades of research have focused on the failure of GABAergic inhibition after seizure onset as the likely cause of the development benzodiazepine resistance during SE. However, the details of the deficits in GABA(A) signaling are still largely unknown. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of benzodiazepine resistance so that more effective strategies can be formulated. In this review we discuss evidence supporting the role of altered GABA(A) receptor function as the major underlying cause of benzodiazepine-resistant SE in both humans and animal models. We specifically address the prevailing hypothesis, which is based on changes in the number and subtypes of GABA(A) receptors, as well as the potential influence of perturbed chloride homeostasis in the mature brain.
AuthorsTarek Z Deeb, Jamie Maguire, Stephen J Moss
JournalEpilepsia (Epilepsia) Vol. 53 Suppl 9 Pg. 79-88 (Dec 2012) ISSN: 1528-1167 [Electronic] United States
PMID23216581 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Review)
CopyrightWiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.
Chemical References
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Chlorides
  • GABA Modulators
  • Ions
  • Receptors, GABA-A
  • Benzodiazepines
Topics
  • Animals
  • Anticonvulsants (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Benzodiazepines (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Chlorides (metabolism)
  • Drug Resistance
  • Epilepsy (drug therapy)
  • GABA Modulators (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Ions (metabolism)
  • Mice
  • Rats
  • Receptors, GABA-A (drug effects, metabolism)
  • Seizures (drug therapy, physiopathology)
  • Signal Transduction (drug effects)

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