[Epidemiology of orofacial clefts (1995-2006) in France (Congenital Malformations of Alsace Registry)].

To review clinical and epidemiologic data of orofacial clefts and to evaluate the efficacy and the impact of prenatal diagnosis.
A population-based retrospective study was carried out on data from the Congenital Malformations of Alsace Registry (France) between 1995 and 2006.
A total of 321 orofacial clefts were recorded (overall prevalence, 2.1 per 1000), divided into cleft lip (CL) or cleft lip palate (CLP) (204 cases) and cleft palate (117 cases). The cleft lip and cleft lip palate CL±P sex-ratio was 1.87, whereas the CP sex-ratio was 1. CLs were more often unilateral than CLPs (79% versus 59%). CLs were unilateral in 79% of the cases (60/76), bilateral in 20% of the cases (15/76), and median in 1% (1/76); 55% of the unilateral CLs were right and 45% were left. CLPs were unilateral in 59% of the cases (76/128), bilateral in 39% of the cases (50/128), and median in 2% (2/128); 45% of the unilateral CLPs were right and 55% were left. The 117 CPs were divided into 50 clefts of the total palate (43%) and 67 clefts of the posterior palate (57%); 25 cases (21%) of Pierre Robin sequence were collected. Sixty-six percent of CL±P (134/204) were associated with other congenital anomalies, including chromosome abnormality in 31 cases and identified monogenic syndrome or association in 12 cases. The most frequent chromosome abnormalities were 16 cases of trisomy 13 and 7 cases of trisomy 18. No cases of 22q11.2 microdeletion or duplication were detected among CL±P. Monogenic syndromes were identified in 6% (12/204) of CL±P cases: Van der Woude syndrome (2 cases); CHARGE syndrome (2 cases); ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft/lip palate (EEC) syndrome (2 cases); branchiooculofacial (BOF) syndrome (1 case); Treacher-Collins syndrome (1 case); Nager syndrome (1 case); Goldenhar syndrome (1 case); holoprosencephaly spectrum (1 case); and Meckel syndrome (1 case). Forty-two percent of CPs (49/117) were associated with other congenital anomalies; chromosome abnormality was identified in 12 cases and monogenic syndrome was diagnosed in 14 cases. The most frequent chromosome abnormality was 22q11 microdeletion (5 cases). Monogenic syndromes were recognized in 12% of the CP cases (14/117): fragile X syndrome (2 cases), Meckel syndrome (2 cases), Orofaciodigital syndrome type I (OFD1) (1 case), Stickler syndrome (1 case), Larsen syndrome (1 case), Kniest syndrome (1 case), Cornelia de Lange syndrome (1 case), thanatophoric dysplasia (1 case), other unknown bone chondrodysplasia (1 case), Fryns syndrome (1 case), fetal akinesia sequence (1 case), and Silver-Russel syndrome (1 case). Fifty-two percent of CL cases (106/204) were prenatally diagnosed. An increasing tendency was observed between the 1995-2000 and 2001-2006 periods with a detection rate increasing from 47% to 56%. During the whole period, only 1 case of CP was prenatally diagnosed. Eighty-two percent of all cases (263/321) were livebirths; 8 stillbirths were reported (2%); 50 syndromic or associated cases (16%) led to medical abortion (no termination of pregnancy was performed for isolated cleft).
Orofacial clefts are a frequent malformation with a total prevalence of 2.1 per 1000 total births. Sonbographic prenatal diagnosis of orofacial clefts remains difficult with a mean detection rate about 50% for CL±P and is extremely rare for CP. Associated malformations and genetic syndromes are frequent and require a systematic survey. This study also highlights the different pathogenic background of CL±P compared to CP, regarding the sex-ratio and the proportion and type of associated malformations.
AuthorsB Doray, D Badila-Timbolschi, E Schaefer, D Fattori, B Monga, B Dott, R Favre, M Kohler, I Nisand, B Viville, I Kauffmann, C Bruant-Rodier, B Grollemund, R Rinkenbach, D Astruc, B Gasser, V Lindner, L Marcellin, E Flori, F Girard-Lemaire, H Dollfus
JournalArchives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie (Arch Pediatr) Vol. 19 Issue 10 Pg. 1021-9 (Oct 2012) ISSN: 1769-664X [Electronic] France
Vernacular TitleÉpidémiologie des fentes labio-palatines : expérience du Registre de malformations congénitales d'Alsace entre 1995 et 2006.
PMID22925539 (Publication Type: English Abstract, Journal Article)
CopyrightCopyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.
  • Abnormalities, Multiple (epidemiology, genetics)
  • Abortion, Induced (statistics & numerical data)
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Cleft Lip (epidemiology)
  • Cleft Palate (epidemiology)
  • Female
  • France (epidemiology)
  • Humans
  • Live Birth (epidemiology)
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Diagnosis (statistics & numerical data)
  • Registries
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Distribution
  • Stillbirth (epidemiology)

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