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Low blood concentration of hydroxychloroquine in patients with refractory cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a French multicenter prospective study.

AbstractOBJECTIVE:
To study the relation between blood concentration of hydroxychloroquine and the clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine sulfate in a series of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE).
DESIGN:
Prospective multicenter study. A staff dermatologist blinded to blood hydroxychloroquine concentrations performed a standardized review of medical records and assessment of hydroxychloroquine efficacy in the following 3 categories: complete remission, partial remission (clearing of >50% of skin lesions), or treatment failure. Whole-blood samples were collected for measurement of blood hydroxychloroquine concentration.
SETTING:
Fourteen French university hospitals.
PATIENTS:
Three hundred consecutive patients with subacute or chronic CLE who had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for at least 3 months.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The statistical significance of correlation between blood hydroxychloroquine concentration and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine and the statistical associations in univariate and multivariate analyses of complete remission with several variables.
RESULTS:
The study included 300 patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (n = 160), subacute CLE (n = 86), lupus erythematosus tumidus (n = 52), chilblain lupus (n = 26), and lupus panniculitis (n = 16); 38 of these patients had 2 or more associated forms. Median blood hydroxychloroquine concentration was significantly higher in patients with complete remission (910 [range, <50 to 3057] ng/mL) compared with partial remission (692 [<50 to 2843] ng/mL) and treatment failure (569 [<50 to 2242] ng/mL) (P = .007). In the multivariate analysis, complete remission was associated with higher blood hydroxychloroquine concentrations (P = .005) and the absence of discoid lesions (P = .004). Thirty patients (10.0%) had very low blood hydroxychloroquine concentrations (<200 ng/mL) and may be considered nonadherent to the treatment regimen.
CONCLUSION:
Monitoring hydroxychloroquine blood concentrations might improve the management of refractory CLE.
AuthorsCamille Francès, Anne Cosnes, Pierre Duhaut, Noël Zahr, Boutros Soutou, Saskia Ingen-Housz-Oro, Didier Bessis, Jacqueline Chevrant-Breton, Nadège Cordel, Dan Lipsker, Nathalie Costedoat-Chalumeau
JournalArchives of dermatology (Arch Dermatol) Vol. 148 Issue 4 Pg. 479-84 (Apr 2012) ISSN: 1538-3652 [Electronic] United States
PMID22508872 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Antimalarials
  • Hydroxychloroquine
Topics
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antimalarials (blood, therapeutic use)
  • Chilblains (drug therapy)
  • Child
  • Female
  • France
  • Humans
  • Hydroxychloroquine (blood, therapeutic use)
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous (drug therapy)
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Panniculitis, Lupus Erythematosus (drug therapy)
  • Prospective Studies
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult

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