Comparison of phenytoin with noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists in a model of focal brain ischemia in rat.

Recent in vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that excitatory amino acid antagonists, particularly those active at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype, are effective in ameliorating ischemic injury due to their antiexcitotoxic activity. However, these drugs are also potent and effective in vivo anticonvulsants. The present experiments compared the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists phencyclidine and MK-801 with the anticonvulsant phenytoin in a model of focal brain ischemia. Fisher F-344 rats were subjected to tandem occlusion of the middle cerebral and ipsilateral common carotid arteries under halothane anesthesia. Compounds were administered intravenously 30 minutes and 24 hours after arterial occlusion; infarct size was assessed at 48 hours after occlusion. Phencyclidine had no effect on infarct volume at 1 mg/kg, significantly reduced (by 36%) infarct volume at 3 mg/kg, and produced a nonsignificant 26% decrease at 10 mg/kg. The more potent and selective noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 reduced (by 32%) infarct volume significantly at 0.1 mg/kg, produced a nonsignificant 23% decrease at 0.3 mg/kg, and had no effect at 0.5 mg/kg. Phenytoin, which is not a glutamate antagonist, reduced the infarct volume by 45% at 28 mg/kg. A single dose of phenytoin (28 mg/kg) administered 30 minutes after occlusion was neuroprotective, but delaying drug administration for more than 2 hours was ineffective. These data suggest that blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor is effective in reducing the infarct size after focal cerebral ischemia. The neuroprotective activity of phenytoin suggests that this may be related to the common anticonvulsant action.
AuthorsP A Boxer, J J Cordon, M E Mann, L C Rodolosi, M G Vartanian, D M Rock, C P Taylor, F W Marcoux
JournalStroke; a journal of cerebral circulation (Stroke) Vol. 21 Issue 11 Suppl Pg. III47-51 (Nov 1990) ISSN: 0039-2499 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID2237985 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Phenytoin
  • N-Methylaspartate
  • Dizocilpine Maleate
  • Phencyclidine
  • Animals
  • Brain Ischemia (drug therapy, pathology)
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dizocilpine Maleate (therapeutic use)
  • Male
  • N-Methylaspartate (antagonists & inhibitors)
  • Phencyclidine (therapeutic use)
  • Phenytoin (therapeutic use)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344

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