The contribution of systemic and pulmonary immune effectors to vaccine-induced protection from H5N1 influenza virus infection.

Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are effective in providing protection against influenza challenge in animal models and in preventing disease in humans. We previously showed that LAIVs elicit a range of immune effectors and that successful induction of pulmonary cellular and humoral immunity in mice requires pulmonary replication of the vaccine virus. An upper respiratory tract immunization (URTI) model was developed in mice to mimic the human situation, in which the vaccine virus does not replicate in the lower respiratory tract, allowing us to assess the protective efficacy of an H5N1 LAIV against highly pathogenic H5N1 virus challenge in the absence of significant pulmonary immunity. Our results show that, after one dose of an H5N1 LAIV, pulmonary influenza-specific lymphocytes are the main contributors to clearance of challenge virus from the lungs and that contributions of influenza-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies in serum and splenic CD8(+) T cells were negligible. Complete protection from H5N1 challenge was achieved after two doses of H5N1 LAIV and was associated with maturation of the antibody response. Although passive transfer of sera from mice that received two doses of vaccine prevented lethality in naive recipients following challenge, the mice showed significant weight loss, with high pulmonary titers of the H5N1 virus. These data highlight the importance of mucosal immunity in mediating optimal protection against H5N1 infection. Understanding the requirements for effective induction and establishment of these protective immune effectors in the respiratory tract paves the way for a more rational and effective vaccine approach in the future.
AuthorsYuk-Fai Lau, Amber R Wright, Kanta Subbarao
JournalJournal of virology (J Virol) Vol. 86 Issue 9 Pg. 5089-98 (May 2012) ISSN: 1098-5514 [Electronic] United States
PMID22379093 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural)
Chemical References
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral (immunology)
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Immunity, Cellular (immunology)
  • Immunization, Secondary
  • Immunoglobulin A (immunology)
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype (immunology)
  • Influenza Vaccines (administration & dosage)
  • Lung (immunology, virology)
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections (immunology, prevention & control)

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