Hypodense eosinophils and interleukin 5 activity in the blood of patients with the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome.

The recent recognition of the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) associated with the ingestion of L-tryptophan prompted an analysis of the peripheral blood eosinophil phenotypes and of the serum eosinophil hematopoietins in this disorder. Five patients with an illness characterized by the abrupt onset of aching skeletal muscles, edema, thickening and induration of the skin, and marked blood eosinophilia associated with L-tryptophan ingestion provided eosinophils, serum, or both, for evaluation. Gradient sedimentation density analysis of the peripheral blood eosinophils from four of these patients revealed that 43 +/- 13% (mean +/- SEM) of the cells had converted to the abnormal (hypodense) sedimenting phenotype. When normodense eosinophils from the reference donors were cultured for 3 days in medium supplemented with increasing concentrations of serum from the patients with EMS, their viability increased in a dose-dependent manner to 45%, which was significantly augmented over the effect of normal serum. This eosinophil viability-sustaining activity was inhibited by 76 +/- 7% (mean +/- SEM; n = 3) by the addition of anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) but not by neutralizing antibodies monospecific for either granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3. IL-5, an eosinophilopoietic factor, converts normodense peripheral blood eosinophils in vitro to a hypodense sedimenting form with extended viability and augmented biologic responses to activating stimuli. Thus, the presence of IL-5 in the sera of patients with EMS may contribute to the development and maintenance of the eosinophilia and may regulate the conversion of the peripheral blood eosinophils to the hypodense phenotype with augmented pathobiologic potential.
AuthorsW F Owen Jr, J Petersen, D M Sheff, R D Folkerth, R J Anderson, J M Corson, A L Sheffer, K F Austen
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A) Vol. 87 Issue 21 Pg. 8647-51 (Nov 1990) ISSN: 0027-8424 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID2236076 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Antibodies
  • Interleukin-5
  • Antibodies
  • Cell Survival
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Eosinophilia (blood, immunology)
  • Eosinophils (cytology, pathology)
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-5 (analysis, immunology)
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscular Diseases (blood, immunology)
  • Syndrome

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