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Induction of protective immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina infections using dendritic cell-derived exosomes.

Abstract
This study describes a novel immunization strategy against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from Eimeria parasite antigen (Ag)-loaded dendritic cells (DCs). Chicken intestinal DCs were isolated and pulsed in vitro with a mixture of sporozoite-extracted Ags from Eimeria tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina, and the cell-derived exosomes were isolated. Chickens were nonimmunized or immunized intramuscularly with exosomes and subsequently noninfected or coinfected with E. tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina oocysts. Immune parameters compared among the nonimmunized/noninfected, nonimmunized/infected, and immunized/infected groups were the numbers of cells secreting T(h)1 cytokines, T(h)2 cytokines, interleukin-16 (IL-16), and Ag-reactive antibodies in vitro and in vivo readouts of protective immunity against Eimeria infection. Cecal tonsils, Peyer's patches, and spleens of immunized and infected chickens had increased numbers of cells secreting the IL-16 and the T(h)1 cytokines IL-2 and gamma interferon, greater Ag-stimulated proliferative responses, and higher numbers of Ag-reactive IgG- and IgA-producing cells following in vitro stimulation with the sporozoite Ags compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and nonimmunized/infected controls. In contrast, the numbers of cells secreting the T(h)2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were diminished in immunized and infected chickens compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and the nonimmunized/infected controls. Chickens immunized with Ag-loaded exosomes and infected in vivo with Eimeria oocysts had increased body weight gains, reduced feed conversion ratios, diminished fecal oocyst shedding, lessened intestinal lesion scores, and reduced mortality compared with the nonimmunized/infected controls. These results suggest that successful field vaccination against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from DCs incubated with Ags isolated from Eimeria species may be possible.
AuthorsEmilio del Cacho, Margarita Gallego, Sung Hyen Lee, Hyun Soon Lillehoj, Joaquin Quilez, Erik P Lillehoj, Caridad Sánchez-Acedo
JournalInfection and immunity (Infect Immun) Vol. 80 Issue 5 Pg. 1909-16 (May 2012) ISSN: 1098-5522 [Electronic] United States
PMID22354026 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Antibodies, Protozoan
  • Antigens, Protozoan
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Protozoan Vaccines
Topics
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Protozoan (blood)
  • Antigens, Protozoan (immunology)
  • Chickens
  • Coccidiosis (prevention & control)
  • Dendritic Cells (metabolism)
  • Eimeria (immunology)
  • Exosomes (immunology)
  • Immunoglobulin G (blood)
  • Immunoglobulin M (blood)
  • Poultry Diseases (prevention & control)
  • Protozoan Vaccines (immunology)

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