The hydrolyzed products of iridoid glycoside with β-glucosidase treatment exert anti-proliferative effects through suppression of STAT3 activation and STAT3-regulated gene products in several human cancer cells.

Iridoids belong to a group of monoterpene compounds with cyclopentane ring and found as mostly the glycoside forms in nature. They act primarily as the defense substances and found in various medicinal plants.
Although many iridoids exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, their molecular targets/pathways are not fully understood. Here, the antiproliferative effect of the hydrolyzed-iridoid product (H-iridoid) form through the STAT3 signaling pathways on tumor cells was investigated.
H-iridoids were obtained from five iridoid glycosides with β-glucosidase treatment. The effects of several H-iridoids on cell viability and cell proliferation in tumor cells were measured by the MTT assay. The phosphorylation levels of STAT3, its regulatory molecules, and apoptosis by H-geniposide treatment in DU145 cells were investigated by immunoblots and flow cytometry.
No single iridoid glycoside exerted any cytotoxicity in the tumor cells, whereas H-iridoids had significant cytotoxic, antiproliferative, and STAT3 inhibitory effects and revealed different potencies depending on their chemical structures. Among the H-iridoids tested, H-geniposide inhibited constitutive STAT3 activation through inhibiting upstream JAK1 and c-Src. Consistent with STAT3 inactivation, H-geniposide downregulated the expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, survivin, and cyclin D1; this correlated with the accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle and the induction of apoptosis.
Our results indicate that the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond from iridoid glycoside is required for exhibiting cytotoxicity in tumor cells. H-geniposide is the most potent agent and a novel blocker of STAT3 activation in DU145 cells.
AuthorsHyundu Hwang, Chulwon Kim, Sung-Moo Kim, Wan-Seok Kim, Seung-Hoon Choi, Il-Moo Chang, Kwang Seok Ahn
JournalPharmaceutical biology (Pharm Biol) Vol. 50 Issue 1 Pg. 8-17 (Jan 2012) ISSN: 1744-5116 [Electronic] England
PMID22149883 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Iridoid Glycosides
  • Iridoids
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • STAT3 protein, human
  • geniposide
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic (chemistry, pharmacology)
  • Apoptosis (drug effects)
  • Cell Cycle (drug effects)
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation (drug effects)
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic (drug effects)
  • Humans
  • Hydrolysis
  • Iridoid Glycosides (chemistry, pharmacology)
  • Iridoids (chemistry, pharmacology)
  • Neoplasms (drug therapy, pathology)
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor (metabolism)
  • Signal Transduction (drug effects)

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