Autoimmune bullous skin diseases. Part 1: Clinical manifestations.

Autoimmune bullous skin diseases are characterized by autoantibodies against adhesion molecules of the skin. Pemphigus is a disorder with an intraepidermal loss of adhesion and is characterized by fragile blisters and erosions. Pemphigus vulgaris often shows extensive lesions of the oral mucosa, while pemphigus foliaceus is commonly restricted to cutaneous involvement with puff pastry-like scale formation. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is obligatorily associated with malignancies and often presents as hemorrhagic stomatitis with multiforme-like exanthems. IgA pemphigus typically presents with pustules and annular plaques but not with mucosal involvement. The clinical spectrum of the pemphigoids includes tense blisters, urticarial plaques, and prurigo- like eczematous lesions. Pemphigoid gestationis mostly occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and mucous membrane pemphigoid primarily involves the oral mucosa and conjunctivae and leads to scarring. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis manifests with tense blisters in a "cluster of jewels"-like pattern in childhood and is more heterogeneous in adulthood. Classical epidermolysis bullosa acquisita shows extensive skin fragility. Dermatitis herpetiformis is associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy and manifests clinically with severe itching and papulovesicles on the extensor surfaces of the extremities and the lumbosacral area. The intention of the review is to demonstrate the heterogeneous clinical spectrum of autoimmune bullous disorders.
AuthorsAndrea Kneisel, Michael Hertl
JournalJournal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG (J Dtsch Dermatol Ges) Vol. 9 Issue 10 Pg. 844-56; quiz 857 (Oct 2011) ISSN: 1610-0387 [Electronic] Germany
PMID21955378 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
Copyright© The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.
Chemical References
  • Autoantibodies
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Adult
  • Autoantibodies (analysis)
  • Autoimmune Diseases (diagnosis)
  • Child
  • Dermatitis Herpetiformis (diagnosis)
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita (diagnosis)
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A (analysis)
  • Pemphigoid Gestationis (diagnosis)
  • Pemphigoid, Bullous (diagnosis)
  • Pemphigus (diagnosis)
  • Pregnancy
  • Skin (immunology, pathology)
  • Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous (diagnosis)

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