Acute renal failure in acute poisoning: prospective study from a tertiary care centre of South India.

Cases of people presenting with poisoning are likely to develop acute renal failure (ARF), which may be due to multiple mechanisms/aetiologies. These cases need careful observation and appropriate treatment.
To find the risk of ARF among acute poisoning cases, identify the underlying causes and to analyse the outcome.
In this prospective study with nested case control, 1,250 cases admitted to the Poison Control, Training and Research Centre of Government General Hospital, Madras Medical College were monitored and evaluated for development of ARF. Patients with history of diabetes/hypertension, known chronic kidney disease, chronic NSAID therapy, those on drugs that increase serum creatinine by inhibiting creatinine secretion and other co-morbid illnesses were excluded. Data were interpreted after subjecting them to bivariate logistic regression and then step wise multivariate analysis.
Thirty-two cases developed ARF. Twenty-four were due to snake bite, the rest due to chemical poisons. Chances of developing ARF were greater (6.15%) among the poisoning due to bites and stings than chemical poisoning (0.9%). Five in the former and seven in the latter expired. Among cases bitten by snakes, only 22 (7%) cases bitten by Russell Viper Daboia russelii developed renal failure. Copper sulphate and rat killer poisonings were the commonest causes of chemical induced ARF, dichromate, indigenous medicines and vasmol 33 (paraphenelyne diamine) were the least causes for ARF. None of the patients with organophosphate developed ARF nor did any of the 150 admitted for overdose of medicines developed ARF.
The risk of ARF among the cases of poisoning was 2.5%. The outcome of ARF among bites and stings was better than chemical poisoning, and the difference was highly significant (p= 0.005, OR = 0.04-1.0, 95% CI = 0.004-0.38). Early recognition and appropriate measures reduce the occurrence of ARF.
AuthorsShah Sweni, Ramachandran Meenakshisundaram, R Sakthirajan, Chinnasamy Rajendiran, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
JournalJournal of renal care (J Ren Care) Vol. 38 Issue 1 Pg. 22-8 (Mar 2012) ISSN: 1755-6686 [Electronic] France
PMID21951386 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Copyright© 2011 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Chemical References
  • Poisons
  • Acute Kidney Injury (epidemiology, etiology)
  • Animals
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Humans
  • India
  • Logistic Models
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Poisoning (complications)
  • Poisons (adverse effects)
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Snake Bites (complications)

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