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Tempol inhibits TGF-β and MMPs upregulation and prevents cardiac hypertensive changes.

AbstractBACKGROUND:
Increased oxidative stress upregulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and transforming grow factor (TGF-β), which are involved in hypertensive cardiac remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that tempol (an antioxidant) could prevent these alterations in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertension.
METHODS:
Sham-operated or hypertensive rats were treated with tempol (18 mg.kg(-1)day(-1) or vehicle) for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was monitored weekly. At the end of the treatment, a catheter was inserted into the left carotid artery and into the left ventricle (LV) to assess arterial blood pressure and contractile function. Morphometry of the LV was carried out in hematoxylin/eosin sections and fibrosis was assessed in picrosirius red-stained sections. Cardiac TGF-β level was evaluated by immunofluorescence. Cardiac MMP-2 levels and activity were determined by gelatin zymography, in situ zymography, and immunofluorescence. Cardiac superoxide production was evaluated by dihydroethidium probe.
RESULTS:
Tempol treatment attenuated 2K1C-induced hypertension and reversed the contractile dysfunction in 2K1C rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was ameliorated by antioxidant treatment. Hypertensive rats showed increased cardiac MMP-2 levels, however tempol did not decrease MMP-2 levels. Increased TGF-β level, total gelatinolytic activity and oxidative stress were found in untreated 2K1C rats. Tempol treatment decreased oxidative stress, TGF-β levels, and gelatinolytic activity in 2K1C rats to control levels.
CONCLUSIONS:
Tempol blunted the increases in TGF-β, the proteolytic imbalance, and the morphological and functional alterations found in 2K1C-induced cardiac hypertrophy. These findings are consistent with the idea that antioxidants may help to prevent hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
AuthorsElen Rizzi, Michele M Castro, Carla S Ceron, Evandro M Neto-Neves, Cibele M Prado, Marcos A Rossi, Jose E Tanus-Santos, Raquel F Gerlach
JournalInternational journal of cardiology (Int J Cardiol) Vol. 165 Issue 1 Pg. 165-73 (Apr 30 2013) ISSN: 1874-1754 [Electronic] Netherlands
PMID21917342 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
CopyrightCopyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chemical References
  • Antioxidants
  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Cyclic N-Oxides
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
  • Spin Labels
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • tempol
Topics
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Cardiomegaly (metabolism, pathology, prevention & control)
  • Cardiotonic Agents (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Cyclic N-Oxides (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Hypertension (metabolism, pathology, prevention & control)
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases (biosynthesis, metabolism)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Spin Labels
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta (antagonists & inhibitors, biosynthesis)
  • Up-Regulation (drug effects, physiology)

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