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Convergent or parallel molecular evolution of momilactone A and B: potent allelochemicals, momilactones have been found only in rice and the moss Hypnum plumaeforme.

Abstract
Plant second metabolites momilactone A and B, which act as potent phytoalexins and allelochemicals, have been found thus far only in rice and the moss Hypnum plumaeforme, although both plants are taxonomically quite distinct. The concentrations of momilactone A and B, respectively, in rice plants were 4.5-140 and 2.9-85μg/g, and those in H. plumaeforme were 8.4-58.7 and 4.2-23.4μg/g. Momilactone A and B concentrations in rice and H. plumaeforme plants were increased by UV irradiation, elicitor and jasmonic acid treatments. Rice and H. plumaeforme plants secrete momilactone A and B into the rhizosphere, and the secretion level was also increased by UV irradiation, elicitor and jasmonic acid treatments. In addition, although endogenous concentrations of momilactone A in rice and H. plumaeforme were greater than those of momilactone B, the secretion levels of momilactone B were greater than those of momilactone A in rice and H. plumaeforme, which suggests that momilactone B may be selectively secreted by both rice and H. plumaeforme. As momilactone A and B exert potent antifungal and growth inhibitory activities, momilactone A and B may play an important role in the defense responses in H. plumaeforme and rice against pathogen infections and in allelopathy. The secretion of momilactone A and B into the rhizosphere may also prevent bacterial and fungal infections and provide a competitive advantage for nutrients through the inhibition of invading root systems of neighboring plants as allelochemicals. Therefore, both plants, despite their evolutionary distance, may use same defense strategy with respect to the momilactone A and B production and secretion, which resulting from convergent or parallel evolutionary processes. In the case of parallel evolution, there may be plant species providing the missing link in molecular evolution of momilactones between H. plumaeforme and rice.
AuthorsHisashi Kato-Noguchi
JournalJournal of plant physiology (J Plant Physiol) Vol. 168 Issue 13 Pg. 1511-6 (Sep 1 2011) ISSN: 1618-1328 [Electronic] Germany
PMID21620514 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
CopyrightCopyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Chemical References
  • Cyclopentanes
  • Diterpenes
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Lactones
  • Oxylipins
  • Pheromones
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • momilactone B
  • momilactone A
  • jasmonic acid
  • Cantharidin
Topics
  • Bryopsida (genetics, physiology, radiation effects)
  • Cantharidin (pharmacology)
  • Cyclopentanes (pharmacology)
  • Diterpenes (analysis, metabolism)
  • Enzyme Inhibitors (pharmacology)
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Lactones (analysis, metabolism)
  • Oryza (genetics, physiology, radiation effects)
  • Oxylipins (pharmacology)
  • Pheromones (analysis, metabolism)
  • Plant Growth Regulators (pharmacology)
  • Plant Immunity
  • Rhizosphere
  • Ultraviolet Rays

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