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The P2 receptor antagonist PPADS supports recovery from experimental stroke in vivo.

AbstractBACKGROUND:
After ischemia of the CNS, extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) can reach high concentrations due to cell damage and subsequent increase of membrane permeability. ATP may cause cellular degeneration and death, mediated by P2X and P2Y receptors.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:
The effects of inhibition of P2 receptors by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) on electrophysiological, functional and morphological alterations in an ischemia model with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were investigated up to day 28. Spontaneously hypertensive rats received PPADS or vehicle intracerebroventricularly 15 minutes prior MCAO for up to 7 days. The functional recovery monitored by qEEG was improved by PPADS indicated by an accelerated recovery of ischemia-induced qEEG changes in the delta and alpha frequency bands along with a faster and sustained recovery of motor impairments. Whereas the functional improvements by PPADS were persistent at day 28, the infarct volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the amount of TUNEL-positive cells were significantly reduced by PPADS only until day 7. Further, by immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we identified both neurons and astrocytes as TUNEL-positive after MCAO.
CONCLUSION:
The persistent beneficial effect of PPADS on the functional parameters without differences in the late (day 28) infarct size and apoptosis suggests that the early inhibition of P2 receptors might be favourable for the maintenance or early reconstruction of neuronal connectivity in the periinfarct area after ischemic incidents.
AuthorsAlexandra B Lämmer, Alexander Beck, Benjamin Grummich, Annette Förschler, Thomas Krügel, Thomas Kahn, Dietmar Schneider, Peter Illes, Heike Franke, Ute Krügel
JournalPloS one (PLoS One) Vol. 6 Issue 5 Pg. e19983 ( 2011) ISSN: 1932-6203 [Electronic] United States
PMID21611146 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists
  • pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid
  • Pyridoxal Phosphate
Topics
  • Animals
  • Cell Death (drug effects)
  • Electroencephalography
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery (complications, physiopathology)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Motor Activity (drug effects)
  • Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Pyridoxal Phosphate (analogs & derivatives, pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred SHR
  • Recovery of Function (drug effects)
  • Rotarod Performance Test
  • Stroke (complications, drug therapy, physiopathology)
  • Time Factors

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