Dose-dependent activity of pyrazinamide in animal models of intracellular and extracellular tuberculosis infections.

Recent in vitro pharmacokinetic data suggest that the currently recommended dose of pyrazinamide may be suboptimal for killing intracellular bacilli in humans. We evaluated a range of pyrazinamide doses against intracellular and extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis in chronically infected mice and guinea pigs, respectively. Antibiotics were given five times weekly for 4 weeks beginning 28 days after infection. Human-equivalent doses of isoniazid reduced lung bacterial counts 10-fold in each species. Pyrazinamide given at 1/4 and 1/2 the human-equivalent dose was minimally active, while human-equivalent doses reduced lung bacterial counts by ∼1.0 log(10) in each species. Doubling the human-equivalent dose of pyrazinamide reduced the lung bacillary burden by 1.7 and 3.0 log(10) in mice and guinea pigs, respectively. As in humans and mice, pyrazinamide showed significant synergy with rifampin in guinea pigs. Clinical studies are warranted to investigate the sterilizing activity and tolerability of higher doses of pyrazinamide in combination tuberculosis regimens.
AuthorsZahoor Ahmad, Mostafa M Fraig, Gregory P Bisson, Eric L Nuermberger, Jacques H Grosset, Petros C Karakousis
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy (Antimicrob Agents Chemother) Vol. 55 Issue 4 Pg. 1527-32 (Apr 2011) ISSN: 1098-6596 [Electronic] United States
PMID21282447 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Antitubercular Agents
  • Pyrazinamide
  • Animals
  • Antitubercular Agents (therapeutic use)
  • Female
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Lung (drug effects, microbiology, pathology)
  • Mice
  • Pyrazinamide (therapeutic use)
  • Tuberculosis (drug therapy, microbiology)

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