Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.

Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers.
AuthorsJ L C M Dorne, M L Fernández-Cruz, U Bertelsen, D W Renshaw, K Peltonen, A Anadon, A Feil, P Sanders, P Wester, J Fink-Gremmels
JournalToxicology and applied pharmacology (Toxicol Appl Pharmacol) Vol. 270 Issue 3 Pg. 196-208 (Aug 1 2013) ISSN: 1096-0333 [Electronic] United States
PMID21215766 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
CopyrightCopyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chemical References
  • Coccidiostats
  • Animal Feed (adverse effects, analysis)
  • Animals
  • Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic (methods)
  • Coccidiosis (prevention & control)
  • Coccidiostats (analysis)
  • Food Contamination (analysis)
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Meat (adverse effects, analysis)
  • Risk Assessment (methods)

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