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A new function for ATP: activating cardiac sympathetic afferents during myocardial ischemia.

Abstract
Myocardial ischemia activates cardiac sympathetic afferents leading to chest pain and reflex cardiovascular responses. Brief myocardial ischemia leads to ATP release in the interstitial space. Furthermore, exogenous ATP and α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP), a P2X receptor agonist, stimulate cutaneous group III and IV sensory nerve fibers. The present study tested the hypothesis that endogenous ATP excites cardiac afferents during ischemia through activation of P2 receptors. Nerve activity of single unit cardiac sympathetic afferents was recorded from the left sympathetic chain or rami communicates (T(2)-T(5)) in anesthetized cats. Single fields of 45 afferents (conduction velocities = 0.25-4.92 m/s) were identified in the left ventricle with a stimulating electrode. Five minutes of myocardial ischemia stimulated 39 of 45 cardiac afferents (8 Aδ, 37 C fibers). Epicardial application of ATP (1-4 μmol) stimulated six ischemically sensitive cardiac afferents in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, epicardial ATP (2 μmol), ADP (2 μmol), a P2Y agonist, and α,β-meATP (0.5 μmol) significantly activated eight other ischemically sensitive afferents. Third, pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, a P2 receptor antagonist, abolished the responses of six afferents to epicardial ATP (2 μmol) and attenuated the ischemia-related increase in activity of seven other afferents by 37%. In the absence of P2 receptor blockade, cardiac afferents responded consistently to repeated application of ATP (n = 6) and to recurrent myocardial ischemia (n = 6). Finally, six ischemia-insensitive cardiac spinal afferents did not respond to epicardial ATP (2-4 μmol), although these afferents did respond to epicardial bradykinin. Taken together, these data indicate that, during ischemia, endogenously released ATP activates ischemia-sensitive, but not ischemia-insensitive, cardiac spinal afferents through stimulation of P2 receptors likely located on the cardiac sensory neurites.
AuthorsLiang-Wu Fu, John C Longhurst
JournalAmerican journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology (Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol) Vol. 299 Issue 6 Pg. H1762-71 (Dec 2010) ISSN: 1522-1539 [Electronic] United States
PMID20870803 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural)
Chemical References
  • Purinergic P2 Receptor Agonists
  • Receptors, Purinergic P2
  • pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid
  • Pyridoxal Phosphate
  • Adenosine Diphosphate
  • alpha,beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
Topics
  • Action Potentials
  • Adenosine Diphosphate (metabolism)
  • Adenosine Triphosphate (analogs & derivatives, metabolism, pharmacology)
  • Adrenergic Fibers (drug effects, metabolism)
  • Animals
  • Cats
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Electric Stimulation
  • Female
  • Heart (innervation)
  • Male
  • Myocardial Ischemia (metabolism, physiopathology)
  • Purinergic P2 Receptor Agonists (pharmacology)
  • Pyridoxal Phosphate (analogs & derivatives, pharmacology)
  • Receptors, Purinergic P2 (metabolism)
  • Sensory Receptor Cells (drug effects, metabolism)
  • Signal Transduction
  • Spinal Nerves (drug effects, metabolism, physiopathology)
  • Time Factors

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