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Kallistatin attenuates endothelial apoptosis through inhibition of oxidative stress and activation of Akt-eNOS signaling.

Abstract
Kallistatin is a regulator of vascular homeostasis capable of controlling a wide spectrum of biological actions in the cardiovascular and renal systems. We previously reported that kallistatin inhibited intracellular reactive oxygen species formation in cultured cardiac and renal cells. The present study was aimed to investigate the role and mechanisms of kallistatin in protection against oxidative stress-induced vascular injury and endothelial cell apoptosis. We found that kallistatin gene delivery significantly attenuated aortic superoxide formation and glomerular capillary loss in hypertensive DOCA-salt rats. In cultured endothelial cells, kallistatin suppressed TNF-α-induced cellular apoptosis, and the effect was blocked by the pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and by the knockdown of endothelial NOS (eNOS) expression. The transduction of endothelial cells with adenovirus expressing dominant-negative Akt abolished the protective effect of kallistatin on endothelial apoptosis and caspase activity. In addition, kallistatin inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species formation and NADPH oxidase activity, and these effects were attenuated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and NOS inhibition. Kallistatin also prevented the induction of Bim protein and mRNA expression by oxidative stress. Moreover, the downregulation of forkhead box O 1 (FOXO1) and Bim expression suppressed TNF-α-mediated endothelial cell death. Furthermore, the antiapoptotic actions of kallistatin were accompanied by Akt-mediated FOXO1 and eNOS phosphorylation, as well as increased NOS activity. These findings indicate a novel role of kallistatin in the protection against vascular injury and oxidative stress-induced endothelial apoptosis via the activation of Akt-dependent eNOS signaling.
AuthorsBo Shen, Lin Gao, Yi-Te Hsu, Grant Bledsoe, Makato Hagiwara, Lee Chao, Julie Chao
JournalAmerican journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology (Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol) Vol. 299 Issue 5 Pg. H1419-27 (Nov 2010) ISSN: 1522-1539 [Electronic] United States
PMID20729399 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural)
Chemical References
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Bcl-2-like protein 11
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Serpins
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • kallistatin
  • Foxo1 protein, rat
  • Nitric Oxide
  • NADP
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
Topics
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis (drug effects)
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins (metabolism)
  • Endothelium, Vascular (cytology, drug effects, metabolism)
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors (metabolism)
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins (metabolism)
  • Models, Animal
  • NADP (metabolism)
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins (metabolism)
  • Nitric Oxide (metabolism)
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III (metabolism)
  • Oxidative Stress (drug effects)
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins (metabolism)
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt (metabolism)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Reactive Oxygen Species (metabolism)
  • Serpins (pharmacology)
  • Signal Transduction (drug effects)
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (pharmacology)

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