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Sex differences in nitrosative stress during renal ischemia.

Abstract
Females suffer a less severe ischemic acute renal failure than males, apparently because of higher nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and/or lower levels of oxidative stress. Because the renal ischemic injury is associated with outer medullary (OM) endothelial dysfunction, the present study evaluated sex differences in OM changes of NO and peroxynitrite levels (by differential pulse voltammetry and amperometry, respectively) during 45 min of ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) protein expression and their phosphorylated forms [peNOS(Ser1177) and pnNOS(Ser1417)], 3-nitrotyrosine, reduced sulfhydryl groups (-SH), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were also determined. No sex differences were observed in monomeric eNOS and nNOS expression, NO, or 3-nitrotyrosine levels in nonischemic kidneys, but renal -SH content was higher in females. Ischemia increased dimeric/monomeric eNOS and nNOS ratio more in females, but the dimeric phosphorylated peNOS(Ser1177) and pnNOS(Ser1417) forms rose similarly in both sexes, indicating no sex differences in nitric oxide synthase activation. However, NO levels increased more in females than in males (6,406.0 ± 742.5 and 4,058.2 ± 272.35 nmol/l respectively, P < 0.05), together with a lower increase in peroxynitrite current (5.5 ± 0.7 vs. 12.7 ± 1.5 nA, P < 0.05) and 3-nitrotyrosine concentration, (28.7 ± 3.7 vs. 48.7 ± 3.7 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.05) in females than in males and a better preserved GFR after ischemia in females than in males (689.7 ± 135.0 and 221.4 ± 52.5 μl·min(-1)·g kidney wt(-1), P < 0.01). Pretreatment with the antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine or ebselen abolished sex differences in peroxynitrite, nitrotyrosine, and GFR, suggesting that a greater oxidative and nitrosative stress worsens renal damage in males.
AuthorsFrancisca Rodríguez, Susana Nieto-Cerón, Francisco J Fenoy, Bernardo López, Isabel Hernández, Raquel Rodado Martinez, Ma José González Soriano, Miguel G Salom
JournalAmerican journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology (Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol) Vol. 299 Issue 5 Pg. R1387-95 (Nov 2010) ISSN: 1522-1490 [Electronic] United States
PMID20702799 (Publication Type: Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Antioxidants
  • Reactive Nitrogen Species
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds
  • Peroxynitrous Acid
  • Nitric Oxide
  • 3-nitrotyrosine
  • Tyrosine
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
  • Nos1 protein, rat
  • Nos3 protein, rat
Topics
  • Acute Kidney Injury (etiology, metabolism, physiopathology)
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants (pharmacology)
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Kidney Medulla (drug effects, metabolism, physiopathology)
  • Male
  • Nitric Oxide (metabolism)
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase (metabolism)
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III (metabolism)
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Peroxynitrous Acid (metabolism)
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Multimerization
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Reactive Nitrogen Species (metabolism)
  • Reperfusion Injury (complications, metabolism, physiopathology)
  • Sex Factors
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds (metabolism)
  • Time Factors
  • Tyrosine (analogs & derivatives, metabolism)

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