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Outcomes of premedication for non-ionic radio-contrast media hypersensitivity reactions in Korea.

AbstractBACKGROUND:
Radio-contrast media (CM)-related adverse reactions are important clinical problems that may cause fatal anaphylaxis. Accordingly, it has been common practice to premedicate patients who have had previous reactions to CM with corticosteroids, antihistamines, and H2 blockers to prevent hypersensitive reactions. However, the effectiveness of premedication has not been properly demonstrated, especially in cases related to non-ionic CM. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of premedication at preventing of non-ionic CM immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions.
METHODS:
A total of 30 patients who had been pretreated with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers in a 3-year period were enrolled. The results of premedication were evaluated in terms of clinical characteristics and the features of breakthrough reactions.
RESULTS:
Hypersensitivity reactions were not prevented in 5 of the 30 patients who had experienced prior CM reactions (overall recurrence rate after premedication 16.7%; 4/17 patients with mild previous reactions, and 1/13 patients with severe previous reactions). The recurrence rate after premedication was significantly higher in patients with mild previous reactions than in those with severe reactions (23.5% vs. 7.7%; p<0.001). The breakthrough reactions were similar to the prior reactions in terms of severity and clinical manifestations.
CONCLUSION:
Premedication with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers effectively prevent non-ionic CM-related adverse events in most patients who have had severe previous reactions to CM. However, physicians should be aware of the possibility of premedication failing and of breakthrough reactions, even in cases in which the previous reactions were mild.
AuthorsSae-Hoon Kim, So-Hee Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Hye-Ryun Kang, Heung-Woo Park, Sun-Sin Kim, Sang-Heon Cho, Kyung-Up Min, You-Young Kim, Yoon-Seok Chang
JournalEuropean journal of radiology (Eur J Radiol) Vol. 80 Issue 2 Pg. 363-7 (Nov 2011) ISSN: 1872-7727 [Electronic] Ireland
PMID20619990 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
CopyrightCopyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chemical References
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Contrast Media
  • Histamine H1 Antagonists
  • Histamine H2 Antagonists
Topics
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones (administration & dosage)
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anaphylaxis (chemically induced, epidemiology, prevention & control)
  • Contrast Media (adverse effects)
  • Diagnostic Imaging
  • Drug Hypersensitivity (epidemiology, etiology, prevention & control)
  • Female
  • Histamine H1 Antagonists (administration & dosage)
  • Histamine H2 Antagonists (administration & dosage)
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Premedication
  • Recurrence
  • Republic of Korea (epidemiology)
  • Retrospective Studies

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