Actin reorganization contributes to loss of cell adhesion in pemphigus vulgaris.

In the human autoimmune blistering skin disease pemphigus vulgaris autoantibodies (PV-IgG), which are mainly directed against keratinocyte cell adhesion molecules desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and Dsg1, cause keratinocyte cell dissociation (acantholysis). Recent studies reported that loss of keratinocyte cell adhesion was accompanied by profound alterations of the actin cytoskeleton. Nevertheless, the relevance of actin reorganization in this process is unclear at present. In this study, we provide evidence for an important role of actin reorganization in pemphigus pathogenesis. In parallel to loss of cell adhesion and fragmentation of Dsg3 staining along cell borders, PV-IgG treatment resulted in striking changes in actin cytoskeleton organization. Moreover, in experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), PV-IgG were detected to interfere with actin dynamics. Therefore, we investigated whether pharmacological manipulation of actin polymerization modulates pathogenic effects of PV-IgG. Pharmacological stabilization of actin filaments via jasplakinolide significantly blocked cell dissociation and Dsg3 fragmentation, whereas cytochalasin D-induced actin depolymerization strongly enhanced pathogenic effects of PV-IgG. To substantiate these findings, we studied whether the protective effects of Rho GTPases, which are potent regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and were shown to be involved in pemphigus pathogenesis, were dependent on modulation of actin dynamics. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF-1)-mediated activation of Rho-GTPases enhanced the cortical junction-associated actin belt and blunted PV-IgG-induced cell dissociation. However, when actin polymerization was blocked under these conditions via addition of latrunculin B, the protective effects of CNF-1 were abrogated. Taken together, these experiments indicate that reorganization of cortical actin filaments is a critical step in PV-IgG-induced keratinocyte dissociation.
AuthorsMartin Gliem, Wolfgang-Moritz Heupel, Volker Spindler, Gregory S Harms, Jens Waschke
JournalAmerican journal of physiology. Cell physiology (Am J Physiol Cell Physiol) Vol. 299 Issue 3 Pg. C606-13 (Sep 2010) ISSN: 1522-1563 [Electronic] United States
PMID20554911 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Actins
  • Autoantibodies
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic
  • DSG3 protein, human
  • Depsipeptides
  • Desmoglein 3
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Thiazolidines
  • jasplakinolide
  • cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1
  • Cytochalasin D
  • latrunculin B
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Actins (metabolism, ultrastructure)
  • Autoantibodies (pharmacology)
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic (pharmacology)
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Cell Line
  • Cytochalasin D (pharmacology)
  • Depsipeptides (pharmacology)
  • Desmoglein 3 (metabolism)
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Escherichia coli Proteins (physiology)
  • Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G (pharmacology)
  • Keratinocytes (drug effects, physiology, ultrastructure)
  • Pemphigus (immunology, metabolism, pathology)
  • Thiazolidines (pharmacology)
  • Time Factors
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins (metabolism)

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