Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rodent fundic stomach.

Certain substances when given orally to rats have effects on the neuroendocrine cells of the fundic stomach. Such compounds also have effects on acid or its secretion, which is to a greater or lesser extent suppressed, with a consequent rise in serum gastrin, followed by an increase in the number of histamine-secreting ECL cells. These changes are seen with the histamine H2 receptor antagonists loxtidine, SKF 93479, ICI 162,846 and ranitidine; with the hypolipidaemic agents clofibrate, ciprofibrate and benzofibrate; with sodium bicarbonate and pentagastrin; and with omeprazole, a potent inhibitor of the parietal cell proton pump mechanism. Changes in the pH of the rat stomach stimulate the neuroendocrine G cells of the pylorus to secrete gastrin, which acts on the ECL cells of the fundus causing the production of histamine, which in turn stimulates the parietal cell. This sequence leads to an excess of circulating gastrin, which is detectable within 5 days. Subsequently increases in the number of ECL cells occur, the hyperplasia being related to hypergastrinaemia and the degree of acid suppression. The hyperplastic response is rapid, being so obvious with loxtidine at 39 days that there is good reason to suppose it could well be detected earlier. Using omeprazole, hyperplasia was found at 28 days after oral doses of 140 mg/kg/day. In order to get an equivalent degree of acid suppression with ranitidine it was necessary to deliver 420 mg/kg/day by subcutaneous infusion using an osmotic minipump, when hyperplasia occurred. Interestingly, only omeprazole produced a hyperplastic response of G cells. Such results reflect the covalent binding of omeprazole to the proton pump as opposed to the competitive binding of ranitidine to the histamine H2 receptor site. In addition to ECL cell hyperplasia there is ample evidence from lifetime studies in rats and mice that neoplasia may result. Neuroendocrine carcinomas (carcinoids) of the rat fundic stomach have been observed with loxtidine, omeprazole, SKF 93479 and ICI 162,846. They are seen late in the 2-year rat studies and are most unlikely to have arisen purely as an extension of the hyperplastic response. It is possible that the prolonged disturbance of gastric homoestasis resulting from achlorhydria result in the production of a carcinogen or carcinogens, in which event it is not too surprising, in view of the neuroendocrine hyperplasia, that the tumours seen are neuroendocrine carcinomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
AuthorsD Poynter, S A Selway
JournalMutation research (Mutat Res) Vol. 248 Issue 2 Pg. 303-19 (Jun 1991) ISSN: 0027-5107 [Print] NETHERLANDS
PMID2046687 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Carcinogens
  • Mutagens
  • Animals
  • Carcinogens (toxicity)
  • Gastric Acid (secretion)
  • Gastric Fundus (drug effects, pathology)
  • Hyperplasia
  • Mutagens
  • Rats
  • Stomach Neoplasms (chemically induced)

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