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Isoflurane preconditioning improves short-term and long-term neurological outcome after focal brain ischemia in adult rats.

Abstract
Isoflurane preconditioning improved short-term neurological outcome after focal brain ischemia in adult rats. It is not known whether desflurane induces a delayed phase of preconditioning in the brain and whether isoflurane preconditioning-induced neuroprotection is long-lasting. Two months-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to or were not exposed to isoflurane or desflurane for 30 min and then subjected to a 90 min middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO) at 24 h after the anesthetic exposure. Neurological outcome was evaluated at 24 h or 4 weeks after the MCAO. The density of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotinylated UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells in the penumbral cerebral cortex were assessed 4 weeks after the MCAO. Also, rats were pretreated with isoflurane or desflurane for 30 min. Their cerebral cortices were harvested for quantifying B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression 24 h later. Here, we showed that pretreatment with 1.1% or 2.2% isoflurane, but not with 6% or 12% desflurane, increased Bcl-2 expression in the cerebral cortex, improved neurological functions and reduced infarct volumes evaluated at 24 h after the MCAO. Isoflurane preconditioning also improved neurological functions and reduced brain infarct volumes in rats evaluated 4 weeks after the MCAO. Isoflurane preconditioning also decreased the density of TUNEL-positive cells in the penumbral cerebral cortex. We conclude that isoflurane preconditioning improves short-term and long-term neurological outcome and reduces delayed cell death after transient focal brain ischemia in adult rats. Bcl-2 may be involved in the isoflurane preconditioning effect. Desflurane pretreatment did not induce a delayed phase of neuroprotection.
AuthorsL Li, Z Zuo
JournalNeuroscience (Neuroscience) Vol. 164 Issue 2 Pg. 497-506 (Dec 1 2009) ISSN: 1873-7544 [Electronic] United States
PMID19679170 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • desflurane
  • Isoflurane
Topics
  • Animals
  • Brain Ischemia (drug therapy, metabolism, pathology)
  • Cell Survival (drug effects)
  • Cerebral Cortex (drug effects, metabolism, pathology)
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery (drug therapy, metabolism, pathology)
  • Isoflurane (administration & dosage, analogs & derivatives, therapeutic use)
  • Male
  • Motor Activity (drug effects)
  • Neuroprotective Agents (administration & dosage, therapeutic use)
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 (metabolism)
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome

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