The development of IgY(DeltaFc) antibody based neuro toxin antivenoms and the study on their neutralization efficacies.

Immunotherapy for treatment of snake bites has been based on mammalian IgG. Recently, polyvalent ovine Fab has become available. However, papain, used in the Fab fragmentation process, is a human allergen. Avian eggs are a source of antibodies and a truncated version of IgY, IgY(DeltaFc), is found in ducks. In this study, we induced duck antibodies by using detoxified cobra and krait venoms and then purified IgY(DeltaFc) antibodies from the hyperimmune duck egg yolk.
Ducks were used for immunization and their eggs were collected for antibody production. ICR strain female mice were used in the in vivo neutralization test. Monovalent antivenoms to Formosan cobra venom and Formosan multi-banded krait venom were raised and purified from hyper-immune duck egg yolk individually. The LD(50) of venoms were determined by subcutaneous injection of different venom doses into the mice. The survival/death ratios were recorded after 24 hours.
The antibody purified from egg yolk showed high titer response to its immunogen (cobra or krait venom) by an ELISA. Overall, the antibodies from duck eggs efficiently protected mice from envenomations.
The antivenoms purified from the egg yolk of ducks immunized with cobra venom and krait venom neutralized the lethal effects of these venoms with good efficacy in a mouse model. The antivenoms were effective in neutralizing lethality in mice injected at 4xLD(50) of venoms.
These results indicate that antibodies derived from ducks can serve as a new source for the generation of antivenoms.
AuthorsVictor Y-Neng Chiou
JournalClinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.) (Clin Toxicol (Phila)) Vol. 46 Issue 6 Pg. 539-44 (Jul 2008) ISSN: 1556-9519 [Electronic] United States
PMID18584367 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Antibodies
  • Antivenins
  • Bungarotoxins
  • Cobra Venoms
  • IgY
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Animals
  • Antibodies (immunology)
  • Antivenins (administration & dosage, immunology)
  • Bungarotoxins (immunology, toxicity)
  • Cobra Venoms (immunology, toxicity)
  • Ducks
  • Egg Yolk
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Immunoglobulins (immunology)
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Lethal Dose 50
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Snake Bites (immunology, therapy)
  • Survival Analysis

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