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The role of ATP and adenosine in the brain under normoxic and ischemic conditions.

Abstract
By taking advantage of some recently synthesized compounds that are able to block ecto-ATPase activity, we demonstrated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the hippocampus exerts an inhibitory action independent of its degradation to adenosine. In addition, tonic activation of P2 receptors contributes to the normally recorded excitatory neurotransmission. The role of P2 receptors becomes critical during ischemia when extracellular ATP concentrations increase. Under such conditions, P2 antagonism is protective. Although ATP exerts a detrimental role under ischemia, it also exerts a trophic role in terms of cell division and differentiation. We recently reported that ATP is spontaneously released from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in culture. Moreover, it decreases hMSC proliferation rate at early stages of culture. Increased hMSC differentiation could account for an ATP-induced decrease in cell proliferation. ATP as a homeostatic regulator might exert a different effect on cell trophism according to the rate of its efflux and receptor expression during the cell life cycle. During ischemia, adenosine formed by intracellular ATP escapes from cells through the equilibrative transporter. The protective role of adenosine A(1) receptors during ischemia is well accepted. However, the use of selective A(1) agonists is hampered by unwanted peripheral effects, thus attention has been focused on A(2A) and A(3) receptors. The protective effects of A(2A) antagonists in brain ischemia may be largely due to reduced glutamate outflow from neurones and glial cells. Reduced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases that are involved in neuronal death through transcriptional mechanisms may also contribute to protection by A(2A) antagonism. Evidence that A(3) receptor antagonism may be protective after ischemia is also reported.
AuthorsF Pedata, A Melani, A M Pugliese, E Coppi, S Cipriani, C Traini
JournalPurinergic signalling (Purinergic Signal) Vol. 3 Issue 4 Pg. 299-310 (Sep 2007) ISSN: 1573-9538 [Print] Netherlands
PMID18404443 (Publication Type: Journal Article)

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