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Use of pharmacodynamic endpoints for the evaluation of levofloxacin for the treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis.

Abstract
Sinusitis remains 1 of the most common reasons for antimicrobial prescriptions in the United States, with health care costs approaching $4 billion annually. We utilized the serial sinus aspirate sampling (SSAS) technique to obtain daily specimens to evaluate the time course of drug effect in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis. Eighteen patients with a radiologically confirmed acute maxillary sinusitis were enrolled into a study evaluating the relationship between levofloxacin exposure and the time course of antimicrobial effect using SSAS. SSAS was performed daily during therapy for bacteriologic evaluation. Six steady-state levofloxacin concentrations were obtained. Levofloxacin plasma and sinus aspirate concentrations were modeled using Monte Carlo Parametric Expectation Maximization algorithm implemented in S-ADAPT 1.53. Endpoints evaluated included time to resolution of signs and symptoms and time to sinus sterilization. Among the 18 enrolled patients, 15 were clinically evaluable. From these, 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 3 Haemophilus influenzae, 1 Moraxella catarrhalis, 1 Corynebacterium spp., and 1 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus organisms were isolated, with the latter 2 organisms being likely contaminants. For the pathogens, levofloxacin MIC values ranged from 0.03 to 2 mg/L. All pathogens were eradicated by the 4th day of therapy. The median and mean time to sinus sterilization (pathogens only) was 1 and 1.4 days, respectively. The median time to resolution of each sign and symptom ranged from 1.5 to 12-19 days, with the 83% of total signs and symptoms resolved by the end of therapy (day 5). The mean plasma area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) (mg x h/L) was 100.1 (n = 14, %CV = 27). Plasma AUC/MIC ratios ranged from 33.9 to 1696 for isolated pathogens. In this pilot SSAS study, levofloxacin rapidly eradicated isolated pathogens from the maxillary sinus.
AuthorsPaul G Ambrose, Jack B Anon, Sujata M Bhavnani, Olanrewaju O Okusanya, Ronald N Jones, Margaret R Paglia, James Kahn, George L Drusano
JournalDiagnostic microbiology and infectious disease (Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis) Vol. 61 Issue 1 Pg. 13-20 (May 2008) ISSN: 0732-8893 [Print] United States
PMID18313879 (Publication Type: Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Multicenter Study)
Chemical References
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Levofloxacin
  • Ofloxacin
  • Peroxidase
Topics
  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents (pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use)
  • Bacteria (drug effects, isolation & purification)
  • Bacterial Infections (drug therapy, pathology, physiopathology)
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Levofloxacin
  • Male
  • Maxillary Sinus (chemistry, microbiology, radiography)
  • Maxillary Sinusitis (drug therapy, pathology, physiopathology)
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Middle Aged
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Ofloxacin (pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use)
  • Peroxidase (analysis)
  • Pilot Projects
  • Plasma (chemistry)
  • Time Factors
  • United States

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