Regulatory effects of mammalian target of rapamycin-mediated signals in the generation of arsenic trioxide responses.

Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is a potent inducer of apoptosis of leukemic cells in vitro and in vivo, but the mechanisms that mediate such effects are not well understood. We provide evidence that the Akt kinase is phosphorylated/activated during treatment of leukemia cells with As(2)O(3), to regulate downstream engagement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its effectors. Using cells with targeted disruption of both the Akt1 and Akt2 genes, we found that induction of arsenic trioxide-dependent apoptosis is strongly enhanced in the absence of these kinases, suggesting that Akt1/Akt2 are activated in a negative feedback regulatory manner, to control generation of As(2)O(3) responses. Consistent with this, As(2)O(3)-dependent pro-apoptotic effects are enhanced in double knock-out cells for both isoforms of the p70 S6 kinase (S6k1/S6k2), a downstream effector of Akt and mTOR. On the other hand, As(2)O(3)-dependent induction of apoptosis is diminished in cells with targeted disruption of TSC2, a negative upstream effector of mTOR. In studies using primary hematopoietic progenitors from patients with acute myeloid leukemia, we found that pharmacological inhibition of mTOR enhances the suppressive effects of arsenic trioxide on leukemic progenitor colony formation. Moreover, short interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of expression of the negative downstream effector, translational repressor 4E-BP1, partially reverses the effects of As(2)O(3). Altogether, these data provide evidence for a key regulatory role of the Akt/mTOR pathway in the generation of the effects of As(2)O(3), and suggest that targeting this signaling cascade may provide a novel therapeutic approach to enhance the anti-leukemic properties of As(2)O(3).
AuthorsJessica K Altman, Patrick Yoon, Efstratios Katsoulidis, Barbara Kroczynska, Antonella Sassano, Amanda J Redig, Heather Glaser, Alison Jordan, Martin S Tallman, Nissim Hay, Leonidas C Platanias
JournalThe Journal of biological chemistry (J Biol Chem) Vol. 283 Issue 4 Pg. 1992-2001 (Jan 25 2008) ISSN: 0021-9258 [Print] United States
PMID18048359 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Arsenicals
  • EIF4EBP2 protein, human
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factors
  • Oxides
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein
  • Protein Kinases
  • MTOR protein, human
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • AKT1 protein, human
  • AKT2 protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
  • arsenic trioxide
  • Antineoplastic Agents (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Apoptosis (drug effects, genetics)
  • Arsenicals (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factors (genetics, metabolism)
  • Gene Deletion
  • Humans
  • K562 Cells
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute (drug therapy, genetics, metabolism)
  • Neoplastic Stem Cells (metabolism)
  • Oxides (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Protein Kinases (genetics, metabolism)
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt (genetics, metabolism)
  • RNA, Small Interfering (genetics)
  • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases (genetics, metabolism)
  • Signal Transduction (drug effects, genetics)
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins (genetics, metabolism)
  • U937 Cells

Join CureHunter, for free Research Interface BASIC access!

Take advantage of free CureHunter research engine access to explore the best drug and treatment options for any disease. Find out why thousands of doctors, pharma researchers and patient activists around the world use CureHunter every day.
Realize the full power of the drug-disease research network!

Choose Username:
Verify Password: