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Pore-forming epsilon toxin causes membrane permeabilization and rapid ATP depletion-mediated cell death in renal collecting duct cells.

Abstract
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ET) is a potent pore-forming cytotoxin causing fatal enterotoxemia in livestock. ET accumulates in brain and kidney, particularly in the renal distal-collecting ducts. ET binds and oligomerizes in detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) microdomains and causes cell death. However, the causal linkage between membrane permeabilization and cell death is not clear. Here, we show that ET binds and forms 220-kDa insoluble complexes in plasma membrane DRMs of renal mpkCCD(cl4) collecting duct cells. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C did not impair binding or the formation of ET complexes, suggesting that the receptor for ET is not GPI anchored. ET induced a dose-dependent fall in the transepithelial resistance and potential in confluent cells grown on filters, transiently stimulated Na+ absorption, and induced an inward ionic current and a sustained rise in [Ca2+]i. ET also induced rapid depletion of cellular ATP, and stimulated the AMP-activated protein kinase, a metabolic-sensing Ser/Thr kinase. ET also induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and mitochondrial-nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor, a potent caspase-independent cell death effector. Finally, ET induced cell necrosis characterized by a marked reduction in nucleus size without DNA fragmentation. DRM disruption by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin impaired ET oligomerization, and significantly reduced the influx of Na+ and [Ca2+]i, but did not impair ATP depletion and cell death caused by the toxin. These findings indicate that ET causes rapid necrosis of renal collecting duct cells and establish that ATP depletion-mediated cell death is not strictly correlated with the plasma membrane permeabilization and ion diffusion caused by the toxin.
AuthorsC Chassin, M Bens, J de Barry, R Courjaret, J L Bossu, F Cluzeaud, S Ben Mkaddem, M Gibert, B Poulain, M R Popoff, A Vandewalle
JournalAmerican journal of physiology. Renal physiology (Am J Physiol Renal Physiol) Vol. 293 Issue 3 Pg. F927-37 (Sep 2007) ISSN: 1931-857X [Print] United States
PMID17567938 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Apoptosis Inducing Factor
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
Topics
  • Adenosine Triphosphate (deficiency, metabolism)
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis Inducing Factor (metabolism)
  • Bacterial Toxins (pharmacology)
  • Cell Death (drug effects)
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Membrane (drug effects, metabolism)
  • Cell Membrane Permeability (drug effects)
  • Kidney Tubules, Collecting (cytology, drug effects, metabolism)
  • Mice
  • Mitochondria (drug effects)
  • Protein Transport
  • Time Factors

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