A 4-alkyl-substituted analogue of guaiacol shows greater repellency to savannah tsetse (Glossina spp.).

The responses of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood to guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol), a mild repellent constituent of bovid odors, and seven analogues comprising 2-methoxyfuran, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (4-methylguaiacol), 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol (4-ethylguaiacol), 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (4-allylguaiacol; eugenol), 3,4-methylenedioxytoluene, and 3,4-dimethoxystyrene were compared in a two-choice wind tunnel. The 4-methyl-substituted derivative (2-methoxy-4-methylphenol) was found to elicit stronger repellent responses from the flies compared with guaiacol. None of the other analogues showed significant repellent effects on flies. 4-Methylguaiacol, guaiacol, and eugenol (which was included because of previous reports of its repellency against a number of arthropods) were further evaluated in the field with wild populations of predominantly Glossina pallidipes Austen. The presence of guaiacol or eugenol near odor-baited traps caused some nonsignificant reduction in the number of tsetse catches at relatively high release rates (approximately 50 mg/hr). In contrast, the 4-methyl derivative at three different release rates (2.2, 4.5, and 9.0 mg/hr) reduced trap catches of baited traps in a dose-response manner. At 10 mg/hr release rate, it reduced the catches of baited and unbaited traps by approximately 80 and approximately 70%, respectively. In addition, the compound not only reduced the number of tsetse attracted to natural ox odor (approximately 80%), but also had an effect on their feeding responses, reducing the proportion that fed on an ox by more than 80%. Our study shows that the presence of a methyl substituent at the 4-position of guaiacol enhances the repellency of the molecule to savannah tsetse and suggests that 4-methylguaiacol may represent a promising additional tool in the arsenal of techniques in trypanosomiasis control.
AuthorsRajindar K Saini, Ahmed Hassanali
JournalJournal of chemical ecology (J Chem Ecol) Vol. 33 Issue 5 Pg. 985-95 (May 2007) ISSN: 0098-0331 [Print] United States
PMID17404820 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Insect Repellents
  • Guaiacol
  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal (drug effects)
  • Guaiacol (analogs & derivatives, pharmacology)
  • Insect Control (methods)
  • Insect Repellents (pharmacology)
  • Male
  • Odors
  • Tsetse Flies (drug effects, physiology)

Join CureHunter, for free Research Interface BASIC access!

Take advantage of free CureHunter research engine access to explore the best drug and treatment options for any disease. Find out why thousands of doctors, pharma researchers and patient activists around the world use CureHunter every day.
Realize the full power of the drug-disease research network!

Choose Username:
Verify Password: