The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (leguminosae) seed extract.

In Indian traditional medicine, various plants have been used widely as a remedy for treating snake bites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica seed extract on the pharmacological as well as the enzymatic effects induced by V. russelli venom. Tamarind seed extract inhibited the PLA(2), protease, hyaluronidase, l-amino acid oxidase and 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activities of venom in a dose-dependent manner. These are the major hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the early effects of envenomation, such as local tissue damage, inflammation and hypotension. Furthermore, the extract neutralized the degradation of the Bbeta chain of human fibrinogen and indirect hemolysis caused by venom. It was also observed that the extract exerted a moderate effect on the clotting time, prolonging it only to a small extent. Edema, hemorrhage and myotoxic effects including lethality, induced by venom were neutralized significantly when different doses of the extract were preincubated with venom before the assays. On the other hand, animals that received extract 10 min after the injection of venom were protected from venom induced toxicity. Since it inhibits hydrolytic enzymes and pharmacological effects, it may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of PLA(2), metalloproteinases, serine proteases, hyaluronidases and 5 cent-nucleotidases, the enzymes involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases.
AuthorsS Ushanandini, S Nagaraju, K Harish Kumar, M Vedavathi, D K Machiah, K Kemparaju, B S Vishwanath, T V Gowda, K S Girish
JournalPhytotherapy research : PTR (Phytother Res) Vol. 20 Issue 10 Pg. 851-8 (Oct 2006) ISSN: 0951-418X [Print] England
PMID16847999 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
CopyrightCopyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chemical References
  • Antivenins
  • Plant Extracts
  • Viper Venoms
  • Animals
  • Antivenins (chemistry, isolation & purification, pharmacology)
  • Blood Coagulation (drug effects)
  • Edema (chemically induced, drug therapy)
  • Hemorrhage (chemically induced, drug therapy)
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Extracts (chemistry, pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Seeds (chemistry)
  • Tamarindus (chemistry)
  • Viper Venoms (antagonists & inhibitors, toxicity)

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