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Endoscopical and histological features in bile reflux gastritis.

Abstract
Bile reflux gastritis is due to an excessive reflux of duodenal contents into the stomach. The increased enterogastric reflux may provide the basis for increased mucosal injury. Bile reflux gastritis can appear in two circumstances: gastric resection with ablation of pylorus and primary biliary reflux due to the failure of pylorus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the endoscopical and histological changes caused by duodenal reflux on the gastric mucosa. The mucosal features were correlated with the risk factors involved in the development of bile reflux gastritis. Our study included 230 patients with alkaline reflux gastritis admitted in Medical Clinic no. 1, Emergency County Hospital Craiova. In all cases we performed an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Multiple biopsies were taken from gastric mucosa in 89 patients and the histological features were scored in accordance with the Sydney system. The average age of the patients with bile reflux gastritis was 58.387 years and the incidence of alkaline reflux gastritis was higher between 51 and 80 years. Reflux gastritis was noted to 138 males lpar;60%rpar; and 92 females (40%), ratio males/females was 1.5/1. The most frequent risk factors for bile reflux gastritis were gastric and biliary surgery. Alkaline reflux gastritis was observed in 167 cases (72.6%) after gastric surgery, consisting in gastric resection, pyloroplasty and gastroenteric-anastomosis. Gastroduodenal reflux after biliary surgery was noted in 17 cases (7.39%), 13 cases (5.69%) with cholecystectomy and four cases (1.73%) with biliary anastomosis. The average time interval from original operation to the discovery of the alkaline reflux gastritis was 14.91 years after gastric surgery and 15.29 years after biliary surgery. The commonest endoscopic alterations were: erythema of the gastric mucosa in 139 cases (64.43%), the presence of bile into the stomach in 133 cases (57.83%), the thicken of gastric folds in 22 cases (9.55%), erosions in 12 cases (5.22%), gastric atrophy in 12 cases (5.22%), petechiaes in five cases (2.17%), intestinal metaplasia one case (0.43%) and gastric polyp one case (0.43%). The histologic alterations observed from tissues collected during endoscopic examination were: chronic inflammation in 75 cases (84.06%), foveolar hyperplasia in 36 cases (40.44%), intestinal metaplasia in 31 cases (34.83%), acute inflammation in 16 cases (16.08%), Helicobacter pylori infection in 16 cases (16.08%), chronic atrophic gastritis in 12 cases (13.46%), gastric polyps in 12 cases (13.46%), dysplasia in 10 cases (11.23%), benign ulcerations in seven cases (3.04%), edema in six cases (6.74%) and neoplasia two cases (2.24%). Conclusions. Bile reflux gastritis was more frequent to male gender. The most frequent risk factors for alkaline reflux gastritis were gastric and biliary surgery. Reflux gastritis after gastric resection, pyloroplasty and gastroenteric-anastomosis were more frequent to male gender, while cholecystectomy and biliary anastomosis were predominantly to female gender. The average time interval from original operation to the discovery of the bile reflux gastritis was similar after gastric and biliary surgery. The commonest endoscopic alterations were: erythema of the gastric mucosa, the presence of bile into the stomach, thickens of gastric folds, erosions, gastric atrophy, petechiaes, intestinal metaplasia and gastric polyp. Acute inflammation, Helicobacter pylori infection, gastric polyps and benign ulcerations were more frequent in patients with bile reflux gastritis after gastric surgery, while edema and dysplasia were increased after biliary surgery.
AuthorsC C Vere, S Cazacu, Violeta Comănescu, L Mogoantă, I Rogoveanu, T Ciurea
JournalRomanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie (Rom J Morphol Embryol) Vol. 46 Issue 4 Pg. 269-74 ( 2005) ISSN: 1220-0522 [Print] Romania
PMID16688361 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Topics
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bile Ducts (surgery)
  • Bile Reflux (complications, epidemiology)
  • Biopsy
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
  • Female
  • Gallbladder (surgery)
  • Gastritis (epidemiology, etiology, pathology)
  • Helicobacter Infections (diagnosis)
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Stomach (surgery)

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