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Tolerability of ivermectin in gnathostomiasis.

Abstract
At present, no universally-accepted effective treatment for cutaneous gnathostomiasis is available. At the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mahidol University, albendazole 400 mg twice a day for 14 days is commonly prescribed for patients diagnosed with cutaneous gnathostomiasis. The efficacy of albendazole to induce outward migration of the parasite was less than or around 20% in 2 studies. Research for alternative, more efficacious treatment, is needed. In this prospective open-labeled study, we assessed the safety of ivermectin in 20 Thai patients diagnosed with cutaneous gnathostomiasis. Ivermectin, one time only, at dosages of 50, 100, 150, or 200 microg/kg bodyweight, was given orally to 4 groups of patients, 5 patients each group. Adverse events were recorded and laboratory tests were obtained before and after treatment. No serious adverse events occurred in this study. Forty adverse events were possibly related to ivermectin. The adverse events were malaise (35%), myalgia (30%), drowsiness (30%), pruritus (20%), nausea/vomiting (20%), dizziness (15%), diarrhea (15%), feeling of shortness of breath (10%), feeling of palpitations (10%), constipation (5%), anorexia (5%), and headache (5%). These adverse events were self-limited and not dose-related. Laboratory abnormalities were found in 3 patients (15%). Transient microscopic hematuria, pyuria, and mildly elevated liver enzymes were found in 1 patient each. Ivermectin single dose, of 50,100, 150, and 200 microg/kg bodyweight, is considered safe in Thai patients. Future trials of ivermectin on human gnathostomiasis may be performed using dosages up to 200 microg/kg bodyweight.
AuthorsValai Bussaratid, Srivicha Krudsood, Udomsak Silachamroon, Sornchai Looareesuwan
JournalThe Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health (Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health) Vol. 36 Issue 3 Pg. 644-9 (May 2005) ISSN: 0125-1562 [Print] Thailand
PMID16124431 (Publication Type: Controlled Clinical Trial, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Antinematodal Agents
  • Antiparasitic Agents
  • Ivermectin
  • Albendazole
Topics
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Albendazole (administration & dosage)
  • Animals
  • Antinematodal Agents (administration & dosage, adverse effects)
  • Antiparasitic Agents (administration & dosage, adverse effects)
  • Female
  • Gnathostoma (drug effects, isolation & purification)
  • Humans
  • Ivermectin (administration & dosage, adverse effects)
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Skin Diseases (drug therapy, parasitology)
  • Spirurida Infections (drug therapy)
  • Thailand
  • Treatment Outcome

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