The mechanism of inactivation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-dioxygenase by 4-chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilate.

3-Hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-dioxygenase (HAD) is a non-heme Fe(II) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative ring-opening of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic semialdehyde. The enzymatic product subsequently cyclizes to quinolinate, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Quinolinate has also been implicated in important neurological disorders. Here, we describe the mechanism by which 4-chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilate inhibits the HAD catalyzed reaction. Using overexpressed and purified bacterial HAD, we demonstrate that 4-chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilate functions as a mechanism-based inactivating agent. The inactivation results in the consumption of 2 +/- 0.8 equiv of oxygen and the production of superoxide. EPR analysis of the inactivation reaction demonstrated that the inhibitor stimulated the oxidation of the active site Fe(II) to the catalytically inactive Fe(III) oxidation state. The inactivated enzyme can be reactivated by treatment with DTT and Fe(II). High resolution ESI-FTMS analysis of the inactivated enzyme demonstrated that the inhibitor did not form an adduct with the enzyme and that four conserved cysteines were oxidized to two disulfides (Cys125-Cys128 and Cys162-Cys165) during the inactivation reaction. These results are consistent with a mechanism in which the enzyme, complexed to the inhibitor and O2, generates superoxide which subsequently dissociates, leaving the inhibitor and the oxidized iron center at the active site.
AuthorsKeri L Colabroy, Huili Zhai, Tingfeng Li, Ying Ge, Yang Zhang, Aimin Liu, Steven E Ealick, Fred W McLafferty, Tadhg P Begley
JournalBiochemistry (Biochemistry) Vol. 44 Issue 21 Pg. 7623-31 (May 31 2005) ISSN: 0006-2960 [Print] United States
PMID15909977 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Disulfides
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Superoxides
  • 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid
  • 4-chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid
  • Dithionitrobenzoic Acid
  • Dioxygenases
  • 3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-Dioxygenase
  • 3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-Dioxygenase
  • 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid (analogs & derivatives, chemistry)
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Dioxygenases (antagonists & inhibitors, biosynthesis, genetics, isolation & purification)
  • Disulfides (chemistry)
  • Dithionitrobenzoic Acid
  • Enzyme Activation (genetics)
  • Enzyme Inhibitors (chemistry)
  • Escherichia coli (enzymology, genetics)
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oxygen Consumption (genetics)
  • Ralstonia (enzymology)
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
  • Substrate Specificity (genetics)
  • Superoxides (metabolism)

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