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Control of bacterial pneumonia during mechanical ventilation.

Abstract
Pneumonia complicates the course of 50% of patients on mechanical ventilation, requiring three or more days of mechanical ventilation and potentially increasing the relative risk of mortality by 20-40%. The predominant potentially pathogenic micro-organisms are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (sensitive to methicillin in the previously healthy host), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (aerobic gram-negative bacilli), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the host with underlying disease. Approximately 85% of pneumonias are endogenous, caused by bacteria present in the patient's oropharyngeal flora. Bacteria present on admission cause primary endogenous pneumonia (55%), whereas bacteria acquired in the unit lead to supercarriage or secondary carriage and subsequently secondary endogenous pneumonia (30%). The remaining 15% are exogenous, ie the bacteria causing pneumonia are not carried by the patient. The diagnosis is usually based on clinical, radiological, and microbiological criteria, using the non-invasive method of tracheal aspirate, which yields >/=10(5) micro-organisms. Seven randomized trials have evaluated three non-antibiotic prophylactic maneuvers: hygiene (1 trial), subglottic drainage (4 trials), and semirecumbent position (2 trials). The impact on pneumonia was mixed, whereas mortality was unchanged. Selective digestive decontamination, using parenteral and enteral antimicrobials to control the three types of pneumonia, has been evaluated in 54 trials and showed an absolute mortality reduction of 8%. The therapy of pneumonia relies on six basic principles: (a) surveillance and diagnostic cultures to identify micro-organisms; (b) immediate and adequate antibiotic treatment to sterilize the lower airways, (c) the source of potential pathogens requires elimination for recovery of the original infection and prevention of relapses and/or superinfections; (d) aerosolized antimicrobials; (e) removal or replacement of the endotracheal tube; and (f) surveillance samples are indispensable to monitor efficacy of treatment. The aim of our review was to evaluate up to date facts regarding control of bacterial pneumonias during mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit settings.
AuthorsJuranko Kolak, Hendrick K F van Saene, Miguel A de la Cal, Luciano Silvestre, Mladen Peric
JournalCroatian medical journal (Croat Med J) Vol. 46 Issue 2 Pg. 183-96 (Apr 2005) ISSN: 0353-9504 [Print] Croatia
PMID15849838 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Polymyxin B
  • Amphotericin B
  • Cefotaxime
  • Tobramycin
Topics
  • Amphotericin B (therapeutic use)
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents (therapeutic use)
  • Cefotaxime (therapeutic use)
  • Chemoprevention
  • Cross Infection (microbiology, prevention & control)
  • Equipment Contamination
  • Humans
  • Hygiene
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Length of Stay
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial (prevention & control)
  • Polymyxin B (therapeutic use)
  • Respiration, Artificial (adverse effects, instrumentation)
  • Tobramycin (therapeutic use)

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