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Memory and learning in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: evidence for ventral and dorsal stream disruption?

Abstract
This study examined memory functioning in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DS; velocardiofacial syndrome). An overall verbal better than nonverbal memory pattern was evident on the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL), with children with 22q11.2 DS performing significantly below their siblings and children with low average IQ but similar to children with autism on facial memory. Children with 22q11 DS also performed significantly below their siblings on tests of verbal working memory. Children with autism performed significantly poorer than the siblings of children with 22q11.2 DS only on their recall of stories. Delayed recall was significantly poorer in children with 22q11.2 DS and children with autism, compared to sibling controls. Although there were no significant group differences on tests of multiple trial verbal or visual learning, a relative weakness was noted with multiple trial visual learning in children with 22q11.2 DS and their siblings, suggesting that an alternative or interactive factor other than the deletion may account for the relatively better verbal compared to nonverbal memory abilities. Deficits in facial memory in children with both 22q11.2 DS and autism suggest disruptions in ventral temporal pathways such as between fusiform gyrus and parahippocampal/hippocampal regions whereas deficits in verbal working memory in children with 22q11.2 DS implicates dorsolateral prefrontal regions, both intimating aberrant white matter pathways.
AuthorsRenée R Lajiness-O'Neill, Isabelle Beaulieu, Jeffrey B Titus, Alexander Asamoah, Erin D Bigler, Erawati V Bawle, Rebecca Pollack
JournalChild neuropsychology : a journal on normal and abnormal development in childhood and adolescence (Child Neuropsychol) Vol. 11 Issue 1 Pg. 55-71 (Feb 2005) ISSN: 0929-7049 [Print] Netherlands
PMID15823983 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.)
Topics
  • Adolescent
  • Brain (abnormalities, physiopathology)
  • Child
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 (genetics)
  • DiGeorge Syndrome (complications, genetics, physiopathology)
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Female
  • Gene Deletion
  • Humans
  • Learning Disorders (diagnosis, etiology)
  • Male
  • Memory Disorders (diagnosis, etiology)
  • Mental Recall
  • Nerve Net (physiopathology)
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Prefrontal Cortex (abnormalities, physiopathology)

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