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[Genetic approach to the pathogeneses of epilepsy].

Abstract
Recently, genetic causes have been identified in certain epilepsy syndromes in which the phenotypes are similar to common idiopathic epilepsies. Interestingly, almost all such genetic abnormalities were detected in genes encoding ion channels expressed in the brain. Thus such epilepsy syndromes are disorders of ion channels, i.e., "channelopathies". The list of ion channel abnormalities that are associated with childhood epilepsy is expanding and includes the followings. Mutations of the genes encoding two subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel, were found in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Mutations of two KCNQ K+-channel genes were identified in benign familial neonatal convulsions. Mutations of the genes encoding several subunits of the voltage-gated Na+-channel and GABA(A) receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel, were also identified as underlying causes of various epilepsy syndromes, such as autosomal dominant epilepsy with febrile seizures plus or generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, benign familial neonatal infantile seizures and autosomal dominant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Mutations within the same gene can result in different epilepsy phenotypes. Abnormalities of Na+-channel alpha1 subunit were also associated with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. Epilepsy syndromes mentioned above, except for severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy, were familial epilepsy syndromes showing dominant inheritance with high penetrance while common idiopathic epilepsies do not show obvious inheritance. However, the similarities in symptomatology between such familial epilepsies and common idiopathic epilepsy may provide us with clues to the genetics of common idiopathic epilepsies.
AuthorsShinichi Hirose
JournalRinshò„ shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology (Rinsho Shinkeigaku) Vol. 44 Issue 11 Pg. 975-8 (Nov 2004) ISSN: 0009-918X [Print] Japan
PMID15651347 (Publication Type: English Abstract, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review)
Chemical References
  • Ion Channels
Topics
  • Epilepsy (genetics)
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Ion Channels (genetics)
  • Syndrome

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