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Selective inhibition of anandamide cellular uptake versus enzymatic hydrolysis--a difficult issue to handle.

Abstract
There is considerable debate at present as to whether the uptake of anandamide (AEA) into cells is by a facilitated transport process or by passive diffusion driven by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The possibility that both processes occur, but to different extents depending upon the cell type used, has been difficult to investigate pharmacologically since available compounds show little selectivity between inhibition of AEA uptake and inhibition of FAAH. Recently, three compounds, UCM707 [N-(Fur-3-ylmethyl)arachidonamide], OMDM-1 and OMDM-2 [the 1'-(S)- and 1'-(R)-enantiomers of the 1'-4-hydroxybenzoyl analogue of oleoylethanolamide], selective for the uptake process, have been described and we have used these compounds, together with AM404 [(N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) arachidonoyl amide)] and VDM11 [(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-N-(4-Hydroxy-2-methylphenyl)-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenamide]), with the initial aim of determining which mechanism of uptake predominates in C6 glioma and RBL-2H3 cells. AM404 and VDM11 were both found to decrease the uptake of 2 microM AEA into cells (IC50 values 6-11 microM), but they also inhibited rat brain FAAH (IC50 values 1-6 microM). However, when using a different FAAH assay protocol, VDM11 was a much less potent FAAH inhibitor (IC50>50 microM) regardless of the cell type and animal species used. In contrast, we confirmed that UCM707, OMDM-1 and OMDM-2 were weak inhibitors of FAAH (IC50 values >50 microM) under all conditions used. However, their potency as inhibitors of AEA cellular accumulation appears to be largely dependent on the cell type and assay conditions used. In particular, the potency of UCM707 (IC50 value > or =25 microM) was considerably lower than the submicromolar potency previously reported for U937 cells. It is concluded that the cause/effect relationship between AEA uptake and hydrolysis cannot be investigated uniquely by using supposedly selective inhibitors of each process.
AuthorsChristopher J Fowler, Gunnar Tiger, Alessia Ligresti, María L López-Rodríguez, Vincenzo Di Marzo
JournalEuropean journal of pharmacology (Eur J Pharmacol) Vol. 492 Issue 1 Pg. 1-11 (May 10 2004) ISSN: 0014-2999 [Print] Netherlands
PMID15145699 (Publication Type: Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Arachidonic Acids
  • Benzyl Compounds
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Furans
  • N-(2-methyl-3-hydroxyphenyl)-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenamide
  • N-(3-furylmethyl)eicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenamide
  • N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)arachidonylamide
  • OMDM-1 cpd
  • Polyunsaturated Alkamides
  • anandamide
  • Amidohydrolases
  • fatty-acid amide hydrolase
Topics
  • Adsorption (drug effects)
  • Amidohydrolases (antagonists & inhibitors, metabolism)
  • Animals
  • Arachidonic Acids (chemistry, metabolism, pharmacology)
  • Benzyl Compounds (pharmacology)
  • Biological Transport (drug effects)
  • Brain (drug effects, enzymology, metabolism)
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Enzyme Inhibitors (pharmacology)
  • Furans (pharmacology)
  • Humans
  • Hydrolysis
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Mice
  • Polyunsaturated Alkamides
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured

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