Confirmation of brevetoxin metabolism in cockle, Austrovenus stutchburyi, and greenshell mussel, Perna canaliculus, associated with New Zealand neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, by controlled exposure to Karenia brevis culture.

We examined metabolism of PbTxs in New Zealand cockle, Austrovenus (A.) stutchburyi, and greenshell mussel, Perna (P.) canaliculus, by means of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. PbTx-2, PbTx-3 and BTX-B5 were detected in Karenia (K.) brevis culture medium in the ratio of ca. 50:2:5. The amounts of PbTx-3 and BTX-B5 were greatly increased in both seawater and shellfish exposed to K. brevis cultures or supernatant prepared by disruption of K. brevis under appropriate condition, while those of PbTx-2 were decreased. Some PbTx-2 was present in P. canaliculus, but not in A. stutchburyi. Low levels of BTX-B1 were detected in A. stutchburyi, but not P. canaliculus. Levels of PbTx-3 and BTX-B5 were highest immediately after exposure and then declined rapidly in both shellfish. BTX-B1 increased in concentration after exposure, and was then gradually eliminated from A. stutchburyi. Three successive exposures of A. stutchburyi to K. brevis cultures resulted in similar initial levels of PbTx-3 and BTX-B5, while BTX-B1 accumulated after each dose. In P. canaliculus, initial levels of PbTx-3 were similar, while PbTx-2 and BTX-B5 accumulated after each dose. PbTx-3 and BTX-B5 are proposed to be suitable markers for monitoring shellfish toxicity after a red tide event.
AuthorsHitoshi Ishida, Akira Nozawa, Haruo Nukaya, Lesley Rhodes, Paul McNabb, Patrick T Holland, Kuniro Tsuji
JournalToxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology (Toxicon) Vol. 43 Issue 6 Pg. 701-12 (May 2004) ISSN: 0041-0101 [Print] England
PMID15109891 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Marine Toxins
  • Neurotoxins
  • Oxocins
  • brevetoxin
  • Animals
  • Bivalvia (drug effects, metabolism)
  • Dinoflagellida
  • Foodborne Diseases (etiology)
  • Marine Toxins (pharmacokinetics, toxicity)
  • Neurotoxins (pharmacokinetics, toxicity)
  • Oxocins (pharmacokinetics, toxicity)
  • Shellfish

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