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Heterotopic ossification.

Abstract
Heterotopic ossification, the formation of bone in soft tissue, requires inductive signaling pathways, inducible osteoprogenitor cells, and a heterotopic environment conducive to osteogenesis. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of this condition. Research into two rare heritable and developmental forms, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and progressive osseous heteroplasia, has provided clinical, pathologic, and genetic insights. In fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 and underexpression of multiple antagonists of this protein highlight the potential role of a potent morphogenetic gradient. Research on fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva also has led to the identification of the genetic cause of progressive osseous heteroplasia: inactivating mutations in the alpha subunit of the gene coding for the stimulatory G protein of adenylyl cyclase. Better understanding of the complex developmental and molecular pathology of these disorders may lead to more effective strategies to prevent and treat other, more common forms of heterotopic ossification.
AuthorsFrederick S Kaplan, David L Glaser, Nader Hebela, Eileen M Shore
JournalThe Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (J Am Acad Orthop Surg) 2004 Mar-Apr Vol. 12 Issue 2 Pg. 116-25 ISSN: 1067-151X [Print] United States
PMID15089085 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S., Review)
Chemical References
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Topics
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (genetics)
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gene Expression
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Myositis Ossificans (epidemiology, genetics, physiopathology)
  • Ossification, Heterotopic (epidemiology, genetics, physiopathology)
  • Risk Assessment
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Distribution

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