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Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and cardiac surgery.

Abstract
Mitogen-activated protein kinases are serine-threonine protein kinases that are involved in several processes important to cardiac surgery such as vascular permeability, cytokine production, vasomotor function, and reperfusion injury. Mitogen-activated protein kinases are expressed in multiple cell types including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinases function in cellular signal transduction cascades and are activated by a diverse range of stimuli including ischemia, shear stress, and vasoactive agents. Three major mitogen-activated protein kinase families were identified as the extracellular signal-regulated kinases, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinases, and p38 kinases. Extensive investigation has established roles for extracellular signal-regulated kinases, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinases, and p38 kinases in cardiovascular signal transduction pathways. Activity of these signal cascades may contribute to the increased pulmonary vascular permeability and myocardial reperfusion injury observed after cardiac surgery with cardioplegia and cardiopulmonary bypass. Recent findings from our laboratory suggest that alterations in the activity of myocardial extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways occur as a result of cardioplegia-cardiopulmonary bypass in humans. In addition, these differences in extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity were shown to mediate coronary microcirculatory dysfunction associated with cardioplegia-cardiopulmonary bypass. The resulting deficit in coronary microcirculatory regulation may potentially lead to detrimental effects on organ perfusion and function. As mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are further characterized, our potential to develop methods to prevent morbidity associated with cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass may be greatly improved.
AuthorsTanveer A Khan, Cesario Bianchi, Marc Ruel, Pierre Voisine, Frank W Sellke
JournalThe Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg) Vol. 127 Issue 3 Pg. 806-11 (Mar 2004) ISSN: 0022-5223 [Print] United States
PMID15001910 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S., Review)
Chemical References
  • Cytokines
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Topics
  • Capillary Permeability (physiology)
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • Cytokines (biosynthesis)
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Heart Arrest, Induced
  • Humans
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (metabolism, physiology)
  • Myocardial Reperfusion Injury (physiopathology)
  • Myocardium (metabolism)
  • Signal Transduction
  • Vasomotor System (physiology)

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