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Identification of naturally occurring spirostenols preventing beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity.

Abstract
22R-Hydroxycholesterol is an intermediate in the steroid biosynthesis pathway shown to exhibit a neuroprotective property against beta-amyloid (1-42) (Abeta) toxicity in rat PCl2 and human NT2N neuronal cells by binding and inactivating Abeta. In search of potent 22R-hydroxycholesterol derivatives, we assessed the ability of a series of naturally occurring entities containing the 22R-hydroxycholesterol structure to protect PC12 cells against Abeta-induced neurotoxicity, determined by measuring changes in membrane potential, mitochondrial diaphorase activity, ATP levels and trypan blue uptake. 22R-Hydroxycholesterol derivatives sharing a common spirost-5-en-3-ol or a furost-5-en-3-ol structure were tested. Although some of these compounds were neuroprotective against 0.1 microM Abeta, only three protected against the 1-10 microM Abeta-induced toxicity and, in contrast to 22R-hydroxycholesterol, all were devoid of steroidogenic activity. These entities shared a common structural feature, a long chain ester in position 3 and common stereochemistry. The neuroprotective property of these compounds was coupled to their ability to displace radiolabeled 22R-hydroxycholesterol from Abeta, suggesting that the Abeta-22R-hydroxycholesterol physicochemical interaction contributes to their beneficial effect. In addition, a 22R-hydroxycholesterol derivative inhibited the formation of neurotoxic amyloid-derived diffusible ligands. Computational docking simulations of 22R-hydroxycholesterol and its derivatives on Abeta identified two binding sites. Chemical entities, as 22R-hydroxycholesterol, seem to bind preferentially only to one site. In contrast, the presence of the ester chain seems to confer the ability to bind to both sites on Abeta, leading to neuroprotection against high concentrations of Abeta. In conclusion, these results suggest that spirost-5-en-3-ol naturally occurring derivatives of 22R-hydroxycholesterol might offer a new approach for Alzheimer's disease therapy.
AuthorsLaurent Lecanu, Wenguo Yao, Gary L Teper, Zhi-Xing Yao, Janet Greeson, Vassilios Papadopoulos
JournalSteroids (Steroids) Vol. 69 Issue 1 Pg. 1-16 (Jan 2004) ISSN: 0039-128X [Print] United States
PMID14715372 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Hydroxycholesterols
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Peptide Fragments
  • amyloid beta-protein (1-42)
  • 22-hydroxycholesterol
Topics
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides (antagonists & inhibitors, metabolism, toxicity)
  • Animals
  • Binding, Competitive (drug effects)
  • Cell Death (drug effects, physiology)
  • Computer Simulation
  • Humans
  • Hydroxycholesterols (chemistry, pharmacology)
  • Mice
  • Neurons (drug effects, physiology)
  • Neuroprotective Agents (chemistry, pharmacology)
  • Neurotoxicity Syndromes (drug therapy, etiology)
  • Peptide Fragments (antagonists & inhibitors, metabolism, toxicity)
  • Plant Structures (chemistry)
  • Plants (chemistry)
  • Rats
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured

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