Amiloride-sensitive Na+ pathways in capillary endothelial cell swelling during hemorrhagic shock.

We recently discovered that the endothelium of skeletal muscle capillaries swells in the low-flow ischemia induced by hemorrhagic shock. The present study was undertaken to determine the Na+ transmembrane pathways involved in this swelling, since hypoxic cell swelling is attributed to an influx of Na+ and water. In an initial series of experiments, amiloride (5 mg/kg body wt), which blocks multiple Na+ pathways, was infused intravenously into anesthetized rabbits 30 min prior to shock (40% single-withdrawal hemorrhage). Intravital microscopy of treated capillaries in the rabbit tenuissimus muscle showed that after a 1-h shock period, there was no endothelial cell swelling, as evidenced by no measurable change in the width of red blood cells traversing the capillary. In contrast, the swollen endothelium of untreated capillaries reduced the luminal diameter by 20-25% with a preserved stationary abluminal membrane. The specific effects of amiloride on Na+ transport were investigated with amiloride analogues. Animal pretreatment with 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)amiloride, a selective inhibitor of Na(+)-H+ activity, in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg did not significantly mitigate shock-induced swelling; however, a dose of 1 mg/kg completely prevented it. Phenamil, a selective inhibitor of Na+ channel conductance, even at a potent dosage of 0.5 mg/kg, did not affect swelling. These results suggest a primary role for Na(+)-H+ exchange in endothelial cell swelling during hemorrhagic shock, possibly as a means to regulate cellular pH, which may become acidic during ischemia. Narrowed capillaries with elevated hydraulic resistances could delay and diminish resumption of microcirculatory flow on shock resuscitation.
AuthorsM C Mazzoni, M Intaglietta, E J Cragoe Jr, K E Arfors
JournalJournal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (J Appl Physiol (1985)) Vol. 73 Issue 4 Pg. 1467-73 (Oct 1992) ISSN: 8750-7587 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID1332933 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Sodium Channels
  • Amiloride
  • Amiloride (analogs & derivatives, pharmacology)
  • Animals
  • Endothelium, Vascular (drug effects)
  • Erythrocytes (physiology, ultrastructure)
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Male
  • Microcirculation (physiology)
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular (drug effects, metabolism)
  • Rabbits
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic (metabolism)
  • Sodium Channels (drug effects)

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