Anti-glycolipid antibodies in the diagnosis of autoimmune neuropathies.

Recent years have seen major progress in our understanding of the clinical pathophysiology of autoimmune neuropathies particularly with the identification and analysis of antibodies to gangliosides and related glycolipids in the serum of patients. Anti-glycolipid antibodies react with epitopes on the carbohydrate region of glycolipid molecules and can be routinely measured by standard immunoassays. In multifocal motor neuropathy, IgM anti-GM1 antibodies that cross react with GD1b and asialo-GM1 are detectable in around 50p. 100 of cases. This condition may clinically resemble certain forms of lower motor neurone disease. IgM anti-GD1b antibodies are found in IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy characterised by profound sensory ataxia. In the anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) IgM paraproteinaemic neuropathy, antibodies also react with the acidic glycolipids, sulphated glucuronyl paragloboside and its higher lactosaminyl homologue (SGPG and SGPLG). Thus a variety of chronic syndromes can be defined by their anti-glycolipid antibody profile. In Guillain-Barré syndrome, anti GM1, GM1b, GD1a and GalNAc-GD1a antibodies are found in patients with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies are a very sensitive and specific marker for the Miller Fisher syndrome. Many other anti-glycolipid antibodies are being increasingly identified in other neuropathy subtypes. The article will summarise existing clinical and serological information in this field.
AuthorsH J Willison
JournalRevue neurologique (Rev Neurol (Paris)) Vol. 158 Issue 12 Pt 2 Pg. S16-20 (Dec 2002) ISSN: 0035-3787 [Print] France
PMID12690656 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Antibodies
  • Gangliosides
  • Globosides
  • sulfate-3-glucuronyl paragloboside
  • ganglioside, GD1a
  • ganglioside, GD1b
  • GQ1b ganglioside
  • acid beta-galactosidase
  • beta-Galactosidase
  • Acute Disease
  • Antibodies (immunology)
  • Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System (diagnosis, immunology)
  • Chronic Disease
  • Gangliosides (immunology)
  • Globosides (immunology)
  • Humans
  • beta-Galactosidase (immunology)

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