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Inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter during focal cerebral ischemia decreases edema and neuronal damage.

Abstract
Our previous study demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) during ischemia and reperfusion attenuated neuronal damage and edema. In this study, we further investigated whether NKCC1 activity contributes to ischemic damage during either ischemia or reperfusion. Immunoblotting revealed that expression of NKCC1 protein was increased following 2-h focal ischemia in cerebral cortex. A sustained up-regulation of NKCC1 in cortex was detected at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h of reperfusion. An increase in the phosphorylated NKCC1 (NKCC1-p) was found at 4 and 8 h of reperfusion. In striatum, a significant increase in NKCC1 expression occurred between 4 and 24 h of reperfusion and no elevation of NKCC1-p signal was observed. Artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) or 100 microM bumetanide in aCSF were continuously microdialyzed into left cortices either 1 h prior to ischemia plus 2-h ischemia, or only during 24-h reperfusion. Infarction volume was significantly decreased in the pre-ischemic bumetanide-treated group (P<0.05) but not in the post-ischemic treatment group (P>0.05). In addition, pre-ischemic bumetanide treatment reduced the ipsilateral water content increase by 70% (P<0.05). Inhibition of NKCC1 did not attenuate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage or the number of TUNEL-labeled apoptotic cells in ischemic brains. These results suggest that inhibition of NKCC1 attenuates cytotoxic edema and necrotic neuronal death during focal ischemia. Activation of NKCC1 activity plays a role in the early stage of ischemic damage.
AuthorsYiping Yan, Robert J Dempsey, Andreas Flemmer, Biff Forbush, Dandan Sun
JournalBrain research (Brain Res) Vol. 961 Issue 1 Pg. 22-31 (Jan 24 2003) ISSN: 0006-8993 [Print] Netherlands
PMID12535773 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S., Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Slc12a2 protein, rat
  • Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
  • Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters
  • Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 2
  • Bumetanide
Topics
  • Animals
  • Brain (drug effects, pathology)
  • Brain Edema (etiology, pathology)
  • Brain Ischemia (complications, metabolism)
  • Bumetanide (administration & dosage, pharmacology)
  • Cerebral Infarction (pathology)
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling
  • Male
  • Membrane Glycoproteins (chemistry)
  • Neurons (pathology)
  • Phosphorylation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred SHR
  • Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
  • Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters (metabolism)
  • Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 2

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