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Effects of hyperosmotic mannitol in reducing ischemic cell swelling and minimizing myocardial necrosis.

Abstract
Impaired metabolism interferes with the active extrusion of intracellular sodium and results in intracellular edema. In the brain and regionally in the kidney, elevation of extracellular osmolality is accompanied by a reduction of ischemic cell swelling and improvement of reflow of blood after arterial occlusion. Studies were therefore performed to examine the effect of elevation of extracellular osmolality on ischemic myocardial physiology and by morphologic examination on the extent of acute injury and subsequent necrosis. Under conditions of controlled hemodynamics, administration of hyperosmotic mannitol resulted in improvement of function of the canine heart with regional ischemia, a lessening of the extent of ischemic injury assessed by electrocardiographic ST segment mapping, and improved total and collateral blood flow. Metabolic studies under conditions of controlled hemodynamics revealed that hyperosmotic mannitol reduced the myocardial oxygen requirement of the ischemic heart. Mannitol dilated large collateral conductance vessels in addition to improving blood flow through the region of myocardial ischemia. Under conditions of ischemia induced by a prolonged reduction in coronary perfusion, hyperosmotic mannitol attenuated the progressive rise in vascular resistance. Direct morphologic examination of areas of myocardium subjected to total interruption of blood flow followed by reflow of blood revealed swelling of both myocardial and capillary endothelial cells early during the reflow period. The extent of swelling was substantially reduced with elevation of the extracellular osmolality with mannitol. Simarilty, osmolality elevation strikingly reduced the extent of eventual myocardial necrosis following prolonged periods of reflow of blood.
AuthorsW J Powell Jr, D R DiBona, J Flores, N Frega, A Leaf
JournalCirculation (Circulation) Vol. 53 Issue 3 Suppl Pg. I45-9 (Mar 1976) ISSN: 0009-7322 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID1253368 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Mannitol
Topics
  • Animals
  • Body Fluids (drug effects)
  • Collateral Circulation
  • Dogs
  • Heart (drug effects)
  • Intracellular Fluid (drug effects)
  • Mannitol (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Myocardial Contraction (drug effects)
  • Myocardium (pathology)
  • Necrosis
  • Osmolar Concentration

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