[Severe infections in children with sickle cell disease: clinical aspects and prevention].

Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is associated with frequent and often severe infections as a result of immune function impairment and functional asplenia. Also, infection can trigger a vasoocclusive crisis. Pneumonococcal bacteremia and meningitis due to S. pneumoniae are often lethal and justify the penicillin prophylaxis, which has provided a dramatic decrease in early mortality bacterial pneumonia is common in patients younger than four years, with most cases being due to S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae. Acute chest syndrome is both a difficult differential diagnosis and a common concomitant of bacterial pneumonia, because they are often intricated. Osteomyelitis is generally due to Salmonella, most often S. enteritidis. Multiple foci are common and treatment is difficult, with some patients developing chronic osteomyelitis with sequestration. Osteomyelitis is less frequent in developed countries and must been differentiated with bone infarction by use of bone scintigraphy. Parvovirus B19 infection causes acute erythroblastopenias. Malaria does not result in cerebral malaria, but can lead to severe anaemia or vasoocclusive crisis, and should therefore be effectively prevented. Antimicrobials are generally selected for efficacy against pneumococci (septicemia, meningitis), Salmonella (osteomyelitis, meningitis), and M. pneumoniae (pneumonia). Prophylactic therapy is of paramount importance and relies on long-term or lifelong penicillin therapy started at three months of age and no closely-spaced immunizations, most notably against peumococci, hepatitis B virus, S. typhi and H. influenzae. Resistant pneumococcal strains have not been reported to cause prophylactic treatment failures. New conjugated pneumococcal vaccines are effective in protecting very young infants and should therefore be used in sickle cell patients.
AuthorsP Bégué, B Castello-Herbreteau
JournalArchives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie (Arch Pediatr) Vol. 8 Suppl 4 Pg. 732s-741s (Sep 2001) ISSN: 0929-693X [Print] France
Vernacular TitleInfections graves chez l'enfant drépanocytaire: aspects cliniques et prévention.
PMID11582920 (Publication Type: English Abstract, Journal Article, Review)
  • Anemia, Sickle Cell (complications, microbiology, virology)
  • Bacterial Infections (pathology, prevention & control)
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Humans
  • Immunization
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Risk Factors
  • Virus Diseases (pathology, prevention & control)

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