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Evidence for a direct action of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the cardiac muscle.

Abstract
The ability of toxins to activate the cardiovascular system plays an important role in the morbidity and lethality of the Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenoming. Most of the actions of the scorpion toxins are indirect and due to the release of adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters. Accordingly, treatment following envenoming is targeted towards inhibition of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors. Here, we have sought evidence for a direct action of T. serrulatus venom on the isolated rat heart (Langendorff's method). We show that the bradycardia induced by T. serrulatus venom was completely blocked by atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Similarly, the increase in heart rate that follows the venom-induced bradycardia was totally inhibited by a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist or by chemical sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine. In contrast to these findings, the venom-induced increase in contractile force was not modified by beta(1)-adrenoceptor blockade or by chemical sympathetic denervation. The results clearly demonstrate that the chronotropic effects of T. serrulatus are dependent on neurotransmitter release, but the inotropic effects are not. The neurotransmitter-independent increase in contractility seems to be a direct action of the venom on cardiomyocytes. We suggest that this direct effect on cardiac fibers may play a role in the development of cardiac arrhythmias and contractility defects following envenoming with T. serrulatus scorpion.
AuthorsA L Teixeira, B F Fontoura, L Freire-Maia, C R Machado, E R Camargos, M M Teixeira
JournalToxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology (Toxicon) Vol. 39 Issue 5 Pg. 703-9 (May 2001) ISSN: 0041-0101 [Print] ENGLAND
PMID11072050 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Adrenergic Agents
  • Muscarinic Antagonists
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, beta
  • Scorpion Venoms
  • Vasodilator Agents
  • Atropine
  • Oxidopamine
  • Acetylcholine
Topics
  • Acetylcholine (pharmacology)
  • Adrenergic Agents (pharmacology)
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Atropine (pharmacology)
  • Bradycardia (chemically induced)
  • Electrocardiography
  • Heart Rate (drug effects)
  • Male
  • Muscarinic Antagonists (pharmacology)
  • Myocardial Contraction (drug effects)
  • Oxidopamine (pharmacology)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, beta (drug effects)
  • Scorpion Venoms (antagonists & inhibitors, toxicity)
  • Vasodilator Agents (pharmacology)

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