Primary prevention of CHD: nine ways to reduce risk.

Lowering cholesterol can reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease. Treating hypertension reduces overall mortality and is most effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in older patients. Smoking cessation reduces the level of risk to that of nonsmokers within about three years of cessation. Aspirin is likely to be an effective means of primary prevention, but a group in whom treatment is appropriate has yet to be defined. Evidence that supplementation with vitamin A or C reduces the risk of coronary heart disease is inadequate; the data for use of vitamin E are inconclusive. Epidemiologic evidence is sufficient to recommend that most persons increase their levels of physical activity. Lowering homocysteine levels through increased folate intake is a promising but unproven primary prevention strategy. Hormone replacement therapy was associated with reduced incidence of coronary heart disease in epidemiologic studies but was not effective in a secondary prevention trial.
AuthorsE P Havranek
JournalAmerican family physician (Am Fam Physician) Vol. 59 Issue 6 Pg. 1455-63, 1466 (Mar 15 1999) ISSN: 0002-838X [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID10193589 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Antioxidants
  • Vitamins
  • Algorithms
  • Antioxidants (therapeutic use)
  • Coronary Disease (etiology, prevention & control)
  • Exercise
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypercholesterolemia (complications, diagnosis, therapy)
  • Hypertension (complications, diagnosis, therapy)
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Patient Selection
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Primary Prevention (methods)
  • Risk
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Teaching Materials
  • Vitamins (therapeutic use)

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