|2.||Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala Azar)
|3.||Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)
|1.||Zink, M Christine: 4 articles (10/2006 - 10/2002)|
|2.||Melby, Peter C: 3 articles (11/2015 - 01/2002)|
|3.||Doumbo, Ogobara K: 3 articles (04/2014 - 11/2005)|
|4.||Kalantari, Mina: 3 articles (01/2014 - 12/2004)|
|5.||Calleja-Macias, Itzel E: 3 articles (01/2014 - 12/2004)|
|6.||Bernard, Hans-Ulrich: 3 articles (01/2014 - 12/2004)|
|7.||Leitner, Gabriel: 3 articles (01/2014 - 11/2007)|
|8.||Paiva, Adriana de Azevedo: 3 articles (05/2013 - 01/2011)|
|9.||Marsh, Kevin: 3 articles (01/2011 - 11/2004)|
|10.||Clements, Janice E: 3 articles (10/2006 - 10/2002)|
06/01/2004 - "Several studies have indicate that half of the dogs with antileishmanial antibodies have no signs of disease although, animal with subclinical infections are potentially infectious to sand flies. "
01/01/1979 - "The study of the immunological background in representative sets of volunteers allowed determination of the aetiology, the proportion of asymptomatic infections and possible deformation of results due to preexisting protective antibodies. "
01/01/2015 - "We previously determined that the seroprevalence of H5N1 antibodies in Egyptians exposed to poultry is 2.1% (15/708), suggesting that mild or subclinical infections with this virus occur. "
08/01/2014 - "We then mapped the dominantly expressed var transcripts and tested whether antibodies from symptomatic or asymptomatic infections showed a differential recognition of the IRBC surface. "
03/01/2013 - "Of 43 individuals that provided sera, 4 (9.3%) tested positive for pH1N1 antibodies, including 3 with serologic evidence of asymptomatic infection. "
07/01/2009 - "This study evaluated five serologic tests used for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infection: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using promastigote antigen (ELISAp), ELISA using recombinant K39 (ELISA rK39), and K26 (ELISA rK26) antigens, an indirect immunofluorescence test using Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigote antigen (IIFT), and an immunochromatographic test using rK39 antigen (TRALd). "
09/01/2015 - "Subclinical infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was discussed on the basis of skin test surveys with antigens of the fungus, seroepidemiological studies, and disease cases outside Latin America. "
01/01/2015 - "Antigens significantly associated with asymptomatic infections were P. "
01/01/2014 - "One hypothesis for this shift in immune paradigm is that a population of MAP-reactive regulatory T cells (Tregs) develops during subclinical infection, limiting Th1-type responses to MAP antigens. "
01/01/2013 - "11 out of 24 recombinant antigens were recognized by plasmas from either symptomatic or asymptomatic infections. "
10/01/2013 - "Current challenges include the need for improved diagnostic methods for detection of chronic and subclinical infections and for the design of more efficient vaccines. "
01/01/2014 - "The live vaccines offer the benefits of low cost, single dose injection, long- term protection, and increased duration of immunity through subclinical infection. "
01/01/2014 - "Vaccines are available and widely used in some horse populations, but their effectiveness is limited by antigenic drift and other factors, and vaccinated animals with subclinical infections have been responsible for introduction of EIV into susceptible populations. "
01/01/2012 - "The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. "
05/01/1996 - "Pigs inoculated with cell culture-attenuated Wa rotavirus (which mimics live oral vaccines) developed subclinical infections and seroconverted but were only partially protected against challenge (33% protection rate). "
|4.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
03/01/1986 - "Antibiotics were approved for use as animal feed additives in 1950 after it was discovered that their use increased growth rate, improved feed utilization, and reduced mortality and morbidity from clinical and subclinical infections in animals. "
01/01/2015 - "However, extended healing times in two of the patients resulted in subclinical infections, which were resolved by administering antibiotics over a period of 2 weeks. "
12/01/2002 - "Thus, the recurrent subclinical infection may result from this intracellular existence of bacteria that are protected from host defenses and effects of antibiotics. "
05/01/2005 - "Although antibiotics are effective against Chlamydia when effectively diagnosed, asymptomatic infections are rampart, making clinical presentation of complications often the first evidence of an infection. "
01/01/2002 - "Further research may be justified (when sensitive markers for subclinical infection become available) in order to determine if there is a subgroup of women who could experience benefit from antibiotic treatment for preterm labour prior to membrane rupture, and to identify which antibiotic or combination of antibiotics is most effective."
|5.||DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
01/01/2015 - "This study, based on molecular methods (PCR, R-T PCR, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis), reveals for the first time in Poland, asymptomatic infection with . "
03/01/2015 - "orientalis DNA than animals with subclinical infections. "
01/15/2012 - "Overall, CMV infection (asymptomatic CMV viral load ≥ 400 CMV DNA copies/mL proven by CMV-PCR) was significantly higher in recipients under preemptive therapy (38.7% vs. 11.0%, P<0.0001), with the highest incidence in D+/R+ preemptive patients (53.8% vs. 15.6%, P<0.0001). "
01/01/2012 - "Subclinical infections may contribute to the epidemiology of drug resistance, but determination of gene amplification from desiccated filter samples requires further validation when DNA concentration is low."
01/20/2011 - "We identified 9 donors who were positive for HBV DNA (1 in 410,540 donations), including 6 samples from donors who had received the HBV vaccine, in whom subclinical infection had developed and resolved. "
05/01/2013 - "The cases of subclinical infection (C-Reactive Protein ≥ 6 mg/L) were excluded. "
10/01/1995 - "In 137, serum C-reactive protein was measured in an effort to detect latent asymptomatic infections before and after two weeks of refeeding. "
12/01/2008 - "To explore relationships between C-reactive protein (CRP), subclinical infection, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. "
05/01/1992 - "Evidence of subclinical infection as a cause of preterm labor is raised by finding elevated maternal serum C-reactive protein and abnormal amniotic fluid organic acid levels in some patients in preterm labor. "
11/15/1985 - "The association of subclinical infection with preterm labor: the role of C-reactive protein."
|7.||Ganciclovir (Cytovene)FDA LinkGeneric
04/11/1991 - "Prophylactic ganciclovir is effective in preventing the development of CMV interstitial pneumonia in patients with asymptomatic infection."
04/15/1996 - "Three patients out of 17 did not develop cytomegalovirus infection and 14 did: 5 had symptomatic disease treated with ganciclovir and 9 developed asymptomatic infection and were not treated. "
01/01/2010 - "In symptomatic CMV infection 6 weeks treatment with ganciclovir is legitimate (decreases viruria and the risk of hearing impairment); while in asymptomatic infection with massive viral replication it can be considered as supposedly beneficial. "
07/01/2012 - "Studies evaluating treatment and long-term follow-up of infants with both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection are necessary, in order to definitely evaluate the short and long-term effectiveness and safety of both ganciclovir and valganciclovir and to identify risk factors associated to the development of long-term sequelae. "
01/01/2002 - "In recent years, three major strategies have been developed for the prevention of CMV disease in this population: reduction of risk of viral acquisition or reactivation by management of risk factors; prophylaxis of all 'at-risk' patients using prophylactic strategies for a defined period of time, initiated at or near the time of transplant; and pre-emptive treatment with ganciclovir of selected 'at-risk' patients, guided by either laboratory markers indicative of subclinical infection or the presence of specific risk factors. "
|8.||Interleukin-4 (Interleukin 4)IBA
11/01/2005 - "The proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that produced IFN-gamma and IL-4 after stimulation with PMA (Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and ionomycin was significantly reduced in VL patients compared to sub-clinical and asymptomatic infections or healthy controls. "
06/01/2004 - "Over a 4-month period of post-inoculation study, MTB culture-filtrate protein (CFP)-stimulated bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BALC) and blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from monkeys with active disease (30 cfu Erdman-inoculated) or asymptomatic infection (200 cfu H37Rv-inoculated) produced similar significant quantities of mRNA encoding for IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha, but insignificant quantities of IL-4 mRNA. "
09/01/2012 - "In this work, we performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the plasma levels of cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12] involved in the pathogenesis of VL in 80 subjects from VL endemic areas, including subjects with active VL, subjects with asymptomatic infection, subjects with cured VL and uninfected controls. "
|9.||O- (3,6- di- O- methylglucopyranosyl)- (1- 4)- O- (2,3- di- O- methylrhamnopyranosyl)- (1- 9)- oxynonanoyl- bovine serum albuminIBA
01/01/1992 - "SACT appears to be more sensitive than ELISA with ND-BSA in detecting subclinical infection. "
03/01/1988 - "Therefore, we suggest that the PGL-I ELISA in combination with the ND-O-BSA ELISA may be very useful for clinical applications, serodiagnosis, and for the study of subclinical infection in leprosy."
09/01/1990 - "IgM ND-BSA antibodies seem to provide a good indicator of low antigenic loads and could prove to be useful in detecting subclinical infection before the onset of disease. "
|10.||Itraconazole (Sporanox)FDA LinkGeneric
|1.||Breast Implants (Breast Implant)
05/01/2009 - "Sonication of removed breast implants for improved detection of subclinical infection."
09/01/2012 - "Based on the findings from this study of a porcine model, the use of antibiotic-impregnated mesh reduces bacterial access to breast implants at the time of surgical insertion and may subsequently protect against subclinical infection and CC."
10/01/2013 - "It remains poorly understood but is attributed to subclinical infection, immunologic response to breast implants, and chronic inflammatory changes caused by the presence of the implants. "
01/01/2004 - "Detection of subclinical infections in significant breast implant capsules."
04/15/2003 - "Detection of subclinical infection in significant breast implant capsules."
|2.||Transplantation (Transplant Recipients)
01/01/2010 - "Brief and asymptomatic infection can occur in hematopoietic transplant recipients."
07/01/2007 - "Both HHV-6 and HHV-7 are highly prevalent in the healthy population, establish latency in macrophages and T-lymphocytes, are frequently shed in saliva of healthy donors, and the pathogenic potential of reactivated virus ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe diseases in transplant recipients. "
09/01/1994 - "The drug is most effective when given prophylactically or as early treatment for asymptomatic infection in bone marrow transplant recipients; treatment of established infection is less effective in this patient group. "
09/01/2011 - "The clinical spectrum varies from asymptomatic infections to serious disseminated diseases involving one or many organ systems and affects mainly AIDS patients, patients with hematological neoplasias, transplant recipients or other immunosuppressed patients. "
05/01/2010 - "Asymptomatic infection with novel influenza A/H1N1 virus in a heart transplant recipient."
05/01/1997 - "It is helpful in the early detection of subclinical infection or any other pathology at the graft site."
01/01/2012 - "Currently, the molecular processes associated with asymptomatic infections in transplant patients infected with BK virus remain unclear. "
11/01/2008 - "The rate of asymptomatic infection diagnosed on BAL remained high regardless of time post-transplant. "
12/01/2006 - "Increased NH from subclinical infection may be a significant factor contributing to late graft failures."
01/01/1990 - "However, new evidence from the liver transplantation model suggests that hepatitis delta virus is capable of establishing latent, asymptomatic infections without the apparent assistance of hepatitis B virus: in this model, disease was only reactivated when hepatitis B virus also returned to the graft. "
|4.||Blood Transfusion (Blood Transfusions)
10/01/2011 - "Antibiotic therapy was effective in neonates with mild and asymptomatic infection; however, double-volume exchange blood transfusion with prolonged multidrug treatment was required for the 2 most severe cases. "
01/01/2014 - "Asymptomatic infections may remain undetected, maintaining transmission of the pathogen, including by blood transfusion. "
01/01/1966 - "Isolation of the virus and demonstration of subclinical infections after fresh blood transfusion in connection with open-heart surgery."
01/01/2014 - "Detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax subclinical infection in non-endemic region: implications for blood transfusion and malaria epidemiology."
08/01/2002 - "Although most WNV-infected individuals have subclinical infections, these data suggest a low prevalence of viremia throughout the Queens epidemic and subsequent low risk of transmission of WNV by blood transfusion."
07/01/2000 - "Combination tocolytic therapy may be a marker for subclinical infection and not causally related to necrotizing enterocolitis."
11/15/1985 - "The presence of subclinical infection must be considered in cases of preterm labor, especially among patients for whom tocolytic therapy is unsuccessful."
12/01/1991 - "Subclinical infection may play a role in the failure of magnesium sulfate tocolysis. "
03/01/1989 - "C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of infection, was determined daily and used retrospectively to investigate the role of subclinical infection in preterm labour and to predict the efficacy of tocolysis and the development of a clinical perinatal infection. "