|3.||Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis)
|4.||Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
|5.||Communicable Diseases (Infectious Diseases)
|1.||Amaral, Leonard: 11 articles (03/2014 - 04/2008)|
|2.||Lange, C: 8 articles (12/2015 - 10/2007)|
|3.||Koh, Won-Jung: 7 articles (11/2015 - 08/2009)|
|4.||Molnar, Joseph: 7 articles (03/2014 - 05/2009)|
|5.||Migliori, G B: 7 articles (10/2012 - 10/2007)|
|6.||Viveiros, Miguel: 6 articles (01/2014 - 04/2008)|
|7.||Centis, Rosella: 6 articles (07/2013 - 10/2009)|
|8.||Sotgiu, Giovanni: 6 articles (07/2013 - 10/2009)|
|9.||Migliori, Giovanni Battista: 6 articles (07/2013 - 10/2009)|
|10.||Centis, R: 6 articles (10/2012 - 06/2008)|
|1.||linezolid (Zyvox)FDA Link
06/01/2012 - "Our findings suggest that linezolid at a daily dose of 300 mg is effective against intractable MDR/XDR-TB, and may be associated with fewer neuropathic side effects than a daily dose of 600 or 1200 mg."
06/01/2012 - "We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 51 MDR-TB patients, including 26 patients (51%) with XDR-TB, to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of therapy with 300 mg/day linezolid. "
08/01/2010 - "Larger numbers of patients should be studied to confirm the efficacy of the linezolid 300 mg twice-daily dosage in MDR-TB or XDR-TB treatment."
08/01/2009 - "We describe a young child with pulmonary XDR-TB who did not respond to an aggressive multidrug-resistant TB treatment regimen, but was cured with linezolid in combination with other reserve antituberculous drugs. "
05/01/2009 - "Adjunctive surgical treatment and linezolid improved the outcome for selected patients with XDR-TB."
|2.||Thioridazine (Mellaril)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/2012 - "Potential therapy of multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis with thioridazine."
01/01/2012 - "Why and How the Old Neuroleptic Thioridazine Cures the XDR-TB Patient."
06/01/2010 - "Although thioridazine is beyond patent protection, its use for the therapy of XDR TB is new and therefore, a patent may be sought for "use as an anti-XDR TB agent"."
06/01/2010 - "Therapy Of XDR TB with thioridazine a drug beyond patent protection but eligible for patent "as new use"."
09/01/2008 - "Promising therapy of XDR-TB/MDR-TB with thioridazine an inhibitor of bacterial efflux pumps."
|3.||butyl 3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)oxanilate (MTB)IBA
05/01/2015 - "Performance of REBA MTB-XDR to detect extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in an intermediate-burden country."
01/01/2015 - "Surveillance of the clinical isolates of MTB is recommended to strengthen the identification of MDR/XDR TB and sublineages of the Beijing/W strains."
01/01/2014 - "The potential of the surfactant in the therapy of human cavitary TB was also investigated using a surgically removed lung from a patient with extreme drug resistant MTB (XDR-TB). "
01/01/2014 - "All (n=9) MTB strains resistant to four or five first line drugs and Extensively drug resistant (XDR-TB) strains were from foreign-born cases. "
01/01/2013 - "This is also due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains (MDR-TB and XDR-TB) of the primary causative TB agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). "
|4.||Rifampin (Rifampicin)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2011 - "Given the escalating size of the problem of MDR-TB and XDR-TB worldwide, gigantic instillation of resources is required for control of this formidable challenge, largely through more accurate and rapid drug susceptibility testing (especially for rifampicin and fluoroquinolone), regular drug-resistance surveillance, development of new antituberculosis drugs and other therapeutic modalities, intensive infection control, especially in HIV care settings, as well as strengthening of currently functioning DOTS and Drug-Resistance Programmes."
02/01/2009 - "Since the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, there has been a call for a rapid assay to detect rifampicin-resistant strains that can be implemented into a routine service to analyse all strains in a specific geographical location. "
04/01/2008 - "This method, named "FAST-Rif" ("fluorometric assay for susceptibility testing of rifampin"), allowed the rapid, reliable, and easy detection of genotypic rifampin resistance as a marker for MDR-TB and XDR-TB."
03/18/2008 - "The analysis of the survey led to the following recommendations for strengthening TB laboratory services: (1) implementing of the published European standards for TB laboratory services with respect to infrastructure, national reference functions, biosafety, human resources, quality assurance, operational research (including evaluation of new medical diagnostics), accuracy and speed, appropriately trained staff; (2) ensuring that laboratories only perform activities for which they have demonstrated proficiency; (3) implement validated and standardised second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST), including drugs used to define extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB); (4) aiming to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance in over 90% of cultures and cases from smear-positive sputum directly within one to two working days. "
01/01/2014 - "Whilst the genomic data contributed to elucidate the phylogenetic positioning of circulating MDR-TB strains, showing a high predominance of a single SNP cluster group 5. Furthermore, a genome-wide phylogeny analysis from these strains, together with 19 publicly available genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, revealed two major clades responsible for M/XDR-TB in the region: Lisboa3 and Q1 (LAM).The data presented by this study yielded insights on microevolution and identification of novel compensatory mutations associated with rifampicin resistance in rpoB and rpoC. "
01/01/2012 - "To identify risk factors associated with mortality in MDR- and XDR-TB patients co-infected with HIV in South Africa. "
04/01/2009 - "Data show that XDR-TB can be successfully treated in up to 65% of patients, particularly those who are not co-infected with HIV. "
01/01/2014 - "Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and second-line antituberculosis medications is essential to achieve successful outcomes among individuals co-infected with HIV and multi or extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB). "
01/01/2012 - "However, there is little prospective data on AE in MDR- or XDR-TB/HIV co-infected patients on antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in programmatic settings. "
03/01/2013 - "Treatment outcomes for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV co-infection."
|6.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
10/01/2014 - "Its harm-benefit balance is unclear, especially in patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, for whom there are very few active antibiotics available."
06/14/2011 - "Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used as a last resort to treat XDR-TB. "
02/13/2009 - "Because of the limited responsiveness of XDR TB to available antibiotics, mortality rates among patients with XDR TB are similar to those of TB patients in the preantibiotic era. "
08/01/2008 - "The reemergence of TB as a potential public health threat, the high susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons to the disease, the proliferation of multi-drug-resistant strains (MDR-TB) and, more recently, of extensively drug resistant isolates (XDR-TB) have created a need for the development of new antimycobacterial agents. "
05/01/2013 - "In recent years, either old antibiotics have been rediscovered as good measures to control XDR-TB, or new ones have emerged as alternatives to cure patients of this type of infection. "
|7.||moxifloxacin (Avelox)FDA Link
11/01/2010 - "Therefore, if the MIC of moxifloxacin is lower than its peak serum level, it may be effective against XDR-TB. "
11/01/2010 - "Should moxifloxacin be used for the treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis? "
05/01/2012 - "The use of moxifloxacin in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis may prevent the acquisition of additional mutations and development of XDR-TB."
05/01/2012 - "This study provides quantitative evidence that the addition of moxifloxacin to extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) regimens based on a clinical breakpoint of 2.0 mg/L has merit. "
02/01/2012 - "The combination of linezolid, moxifloxacin and thioridazine is recommended for compassionate use in specialized centres with expertise in the management of XDR-TB."
|8.||Clofazimine (Lamprene)FDA Link
11/01/2014 - "Clofazimine was associated with improved culture conversion in the treatment of XDR-TB/HIV. "
11/01/2014 - "Based on these preliminary data, further study of clofazimine in XDR-TB/HIV treatment is warranted. "
11/01/2014 - "Given the present low rates of culture conversion in XDR-TB treatment, we recommend empirical inclusion of clofazimine in treatment regimens for XDR-TB."
11/01/2014 - "This was a retrospective cohort study of adult XDR-TB patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, treated with either a clofazimine- or non-clofazimine-containing XDR-TB treatment regimen. "
11/01/2014 - "Clofazimine has shown activity in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but clinical experience with clofazimine in XDR-TB and HIV coinfection is limited. "
12/01/2015 - "The thin-layer agar method for direct phenotypic detection of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis."
08/01/2012 - "To assess the performance and feasibility of the introduction of the thin-layer agar MDR/XDR-TB Colour Test (Colour Test) as a non-commercial method of drug susceptibility testing (DST). "
11/01/2011 - "In this study, the tube dilution method and Middlebrook 7H10 agar media were used to describe the in vitro efficacy of 3 AHAS inhibitors (sulfometuron methyl, monosulfuron, and monosulfuron-ester) against H37Rv and 26 clinical isolates, which include MDR-TB and XDR-TB strains, from the 309th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA 309), Beijing, China. "
|10.||Oxazolidinones (2 Oxazolidone)IBA
|1.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
12/01/2008 - "Pulmonary resection under cover of state-of-the-art chemotherapy is safe and effective for patients with localized extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis."
08/01/2012 - "With appropriate chemotherapy and timely adjuvant surgery, patients with XDR-TB localized to lobe or lung may achieve a "cure" with low morbidity and mortality. "
02/01/2011 - "Alternative chemotherapy using more costly and toxic drugs, often for prolonged durations generally >18 months, is required for multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. "
11/01/2010 - "XDR-TB, MDR-TB and R/H-DR TB isolates exhibited both increasingly broader resistance spectra and a higher percentage of strains with high MICs to more frequently resistant drugs, which might be related to patterns of TB chemotherapy."
05/01/2010 - "Early pulmonary resection combined with chemotherapy had high cure rates with acceptable complications and preservation of the lung parenchyma in MDR TB and XDR TB."
09/01/2013 - "The worldwide increment of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis has emphasized the importance of looking for new options in therapeutics. "
10/01/2008 - "To prevent an epidemic of untreatable XDR-TB, improvements in XDR-TB surveillance, increased laboratory capacity for rapid detection of drug-resistant strains, better infection control and the development of new therapeutics are urgently needed."
04/01/2008 - "The TB laboratory of the future: macrophage-based selection of XDR-TB therapeutics."
02/01/2014 - "In vitro studies demonstrated a lack of cross resistance with existing tuberculosis therapeutics, activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and an excellent pharmacological profile. "
02/01/2009 - "Promising new therapeutics in clinical trials may shorten the duration of treatment of TB, which will lessen the development of drug resistance or provide potent new and MTB specific agents that should be effective in treatment of XDR-TB."
12/01/2015 - "Over 30% of bacilli from patients with pre-XDR-TB showed resistance to any fluoroquinolone and almost 70% to any second-line injectable drug. "
08/15/2015 - "New drug regimens that do not include injectable agents should be operationally tested as empiric treatment in XDR-TB."
10/21/2014 - "A contributing factor is the substantial proportion of MDR-TB cases that are additionally resistant to either a fluoroquinolone, a second-line injectable agent or both (XDR-TB); high-burden country proportions range from 12.6% to 80.4%. "
01/01/2014 - "The patterns of DR-TB were: 21% mono-resistant, 12% poly-resistant, 38% multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), 21% pre-extensively-drug-resistant (MDR-TB plus resistance to either a fluoroquinolone or second-line injectable), 6% extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) and 2% extremely drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB plus resistance to any group-IV/V drug). "
01/01/2014 - "In 2006, the first cases of MDR strains with further resistance to fluoroquinolone and injectable drugs were described and named extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). "
|5.||Directly Observed Therapy
08/15/2008 - "XDR TB and pre-XDR TB cases comprise a substantial fraction of MDR TB cases in California, indicating the need for interventions that improve surveillance, directly observed therapy, and rapid drug susceptibility testing and reporting."
03/01/2012 - "Confirmed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis should be treated with directly observed therapy in collaboration with a clinician familiar with management of these conditions. "
10/01/2008 - "Inadequate global tuberculosis control through the directly observed therapy short course strategy alone and the growing threat of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis has driven recent development of new commercial and noncommercial tests, which are most desperately needed in resource-limited, high-burden settings. "
07/01/2008 - "Seven patients with confirmed MDR-TB or XDR-TB who were still culture positive despite appropriate directly observed therapy were treated with a regimen containing linezolid and at least one other active agent. "